Glossary of Psych Final, Exam 2

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Classical Conditioning
a form of learning that involves pairing a neutral stimulus and a response originally produced by another.
So,ex: A youngster smiles when she hears the family dog's collar because she knows the dog is coming to play with her.
Expectations about what will happen in their environment.
Operant Conditioning
Learning through punishment and reinforcement on what is right and wrong to do
Decrease in paying attention to a stimulus because it becomes more familiar.
Ex: being able to sleep through a train, because used to it.
Orienting Response
Apart of habituation where one is presented with a strong or unfamiliar stimulus and a person starts, fixes the eyes on the stimulus and shows changed in heart rate and brain wave activity.
Meltzoff & Moore: newborns imitate tongue protrusions & mouth openings
Rovee & Collier: child kicking mobile. Learn that a 2-3 month old baby can remember to use leg to move mobile after a couple of weeks, but if longer period of time occurs then will forget. However, if reminded will remember what happened before.
First to study children's thinking in systematic way. Combined biology and philosophy in theory
Piaget's Theory
Constructivist: Child constructs knowledge through interaction with the environment.
Schemes and the two defs with it
Patterns of behavior used to learn about the world such as grasping or sucking
Accomodation and Assimilation
Assimilation: using schemes in action
accomodation: accomodating these schemes while using them (ex: using 2 HANDS to grasp instead of one)
Sensorimotor period
birth -2 years
infants understand world through their actions on it.
6 substages of sensorimotor period:
1) Reflexive (birth -1 mo):
2) Primary circular (1-4): behaviors toward body
3) Secondary circular reactions (4-8): accidentally using actions in environment
4) Coordination of Secondary Circular reactions (8-12): using secondary reactions on purpose and making more complex.
Object Permaneance
Knowing that object exists when it is out of sight
A and B experiment (8-12)
(infants lacked for much of first year)
Tertiary circular reactions
(12-18)experimental and creative reactions.

according to Piaget, repeating old schemes with new objects.
Stages of Preoperational Stage
~2-7 years
~ Development of Representation
~ Language Development
~ Make believe
Characteristics of Preoperational Thought (6)
1) Egocentrism
2) Centration,
3) Non-reversible,
4) animistic thinking,
5) not capable of operations
6) Difficulty distinguishing appearance and reality.
Inability to distinguish view points of others from own. (everyone sees the world in the same way, girl talking on phone and gestures, etc.)
Animistic Thinking
That Inanimate objects have life like qualities
Difficulty distinguishing appearance and reality
Child assumes that an object really is what it appears to be. Child beleives that aperson smiling is really happy even if they aren't. A person wearing scary clothes is always scary, etc.
Focus on one aspect of situation and neglect others. EX: Glass of water in tall or fat glass, which has more water? etc.
Russian psychologist that thought that development is based on social interactions (language)
Process by which social becomes personal/individual
A style in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance they offer to match the learner's needs.
Zone of proximal development
Range of where a child can do tasks on his or her own from where she or he needs help. (Kid doing a puzzle, but doesnt know all the right places to fit it, needs guidance)
Four components of Lanugage
Speech Segmentation
dividing speech stream into appropriate segments. No marders indicate where one segment begins and one ends. Aware of this when listening to unfamiliar language or viewing soiund amplitude pattern.
Categorial Perception
TEndency to hear continuously varying speech sounds as distinct categories.
~First infants are sensitive to all language of world, then by 11-12 only sensitive to own language.
(gice, kice experiment)
Language Milestones (5)
~ 2 months: pleasant vowel-like noises.
~6 months: babbling
~12 months: first words. 5 new words a day. Telegraphic speech begins and also start to combine words
~18-22 months, naming explosion
~4-5 years: well developed vocab & grammar
The Three Theoretical Explanations of Langage Development
Nativist: langage is biologically based ability present @ birth.
Behaviorist: langage acquired through principles of learning (skinner - adults reinforce sounds)
Interactionists: langauge is product of interaction between biology & experience.
When do infants express all basic emotions
8-9 months
By 2-3 months, social smiles in response to human faces appear (marks emergence of joy)
Experiencing another person's feelings. (21-29 months)
Complex emotions emerge around
18-24 months
Anger emerges:
4-6 months
Fear after 6 months: stranger wariness
rouge test: understand self by 18month. Increasing understanding of mental states (theory of mind)
Social Referencing
Using parent's expressions to understand sitaution (12 months ?)
Consistent style of reactivity and behavior
Enduring socioemotional relationship. To maintain emotional security. Pre-attachment birth-6 weeks and attachment when infant begins to prefer primary giver (6 -8 months)
Strange Situation
is 8 situations that are 3 minutes each. you put a child in a room with there mom and u put them in 8 situations like 1. mom leave room. 2. stranger person walks in etc. its used to see how attached the child is and how they respond 2 each situations
The Four Foirms of Attachment
1. secure attachment
-engage in play when mom is present
2. avoid attachment
-usually not distressed by separation
3. Resistant attachment
-upset when mom leaves room
4. Disorganized
-confused when mom leaves and returns
Stranger and Seperation Anxiety
stranger anxiety- is when strangers come around and they start to cry
and separation anxiety when mom leaves they cry
Development of Play from Birth to 2 years
oSolitary play: child plays alone
oParallel Play: each child plays alone but maintains interest in what other children are doing (12 months)
oSimple Social Play: Engage in similar activities, talk to o r smile at one another (begin to work together)
oCooperative Play: distinct theme/roles organize play together ( 24 months & older)
oSociodramatic Play: make believe play involving other children and complex themes (30 months & older)
Playing house, etc.
oSame sex playmates start at 2-3 years.
Gender Labeling
Understand & use label for self (boy, girl) 2-3 years
Gender Stability
Understand girl become women and boys become men. During preschool.
Gender Constancy
Understand gender doesnt change over situations (4-7 years)
Gender Typing
Children do what is considered right for their gender. (like women cooks, etc.)
Gender Schemas
Idea expectations of men and women. Set of beliefs and expectaitons about males and females.
Concrete Operational Stage
7-11 years
Thought is flexible, logical and organized when applied to concrete information
Preoperational, failure on conservation task
Lack understanding that physical characteristics remain same when appearance changes. (The two glasses of liquid and how one glass is taller than other but still same amount of liquid in each cup.)
Preoperational, Lack of hierarchical Classification
Cant organize objects into classes and subclasses
Difficulty with class inclusion problems (blue beads and all beads)
(Concrete Operational Thought)
Children pass conservation tasks.
Decentration: solutions take more than one dimension into account
Reversibility: able to imagine operations in reverse
Hierarchical Classification: children can pass class inclusion problems. (Seriation: children can order items along a quantitative dimension)
Formal Operational Stage
11 years - older
Develop capacity for abstract, scientific thinking
Hypothetic-deductive: reasoning begin w/ general hypothesis, test in orderly fashion
propositional thought - can evaluate logic of statements w/ out referring to everyday circumstances.

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