Glossary of Psych Ch. 9

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a person's preference for and tendency to engage in effortful cognitive activities
need for cognition
the mental activity of knowing and the processes through which knowledge is acquired and problems are solved
the sending and receiving of information
a systematic way of communicating information using symbols and rules for combining them
the oral expression of language
the system of rules that determines the proper use and combination of language symbols
the rules used in language to combine basic sounds into words
the rules used in language to combine words into sentences
the rules used in language to communicate the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences
the smallest significant sound units in speech
the smallest units of language that carry meaning
inadvertent speech errors that occur when sounds or words are rearranged
slips of the tongue
according to Chomsky's linguistic theory, an innate mechanism that facilitates the learning of language
language acquisition device
an early speech phase in which children used short, multiple-word sentences that leave out all but the essential words, like in a telegrammed message
telegraphic speech
the proposal that the structure of language determines the structure of thought, meaning that people who speak diffrent languages also think differently
linguistic relativity hypothesis
the use of masculine nouns and pronouns to refer to all peeople, instead of just males
generic masculine
a mental grouping of objects, ideas, or events that share common properties
the process of forming concepts
the most representative members of a concept
the thought process employed to overcome obstacles
problem solving
a problem solving strategy that involves trying one possible solution after another until one works
trial and error
a problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule or step-by-step procedure until you inevitably produce the correct solution
a problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions
a problem-solving strategy that involves a sudden realization of how a problem can be solved
the tendency to seek information that supports our beliefs, while ignoring disconfirming information
confirmation bias
the tendency to continue using solutions that have worked in the past, even though better alternatives may exist
mental set
the tendency to think of objects as functioning in fixed and unchanging ways and ignoring other less obvious ways in which they might be used
functional fixedness
the way in which choices are structured
the tendency to make decisions based on how closely an alternative matches (or represents) a particular prototype
representativeness heuristic
the tendency to judge the frequency or probability of an event in terms of how easy it is to think of examples of that event
availability heuristic

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