Glossary of Psych Ch. 8 2

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the mental process by which information is encoded and stored in the brain, and later retieved
a memory model concerning the sequential processing and use of information, involving encoding, storage, and retrieval
information-processing model
the first memory process, in which information is organized and transformed so that it can be entered into memory
the second memory process, in which information is entered and maintained in memory for a period of time
the third memory process, which involves recovering stored information from memory so that it can be used
the increased memory for the first bits of information presented in a string of information
primacy effect
the increased memory for the last bits of information presented in a string of information
recency effect
a durable memory system that has an immense capacity for informaation storage
long-term memory
a limited-capacity memory system where we actively "work" with information
short-term memory
a memory system that very briefly stores the sensory characteristics of a stimulus
sensory memory
the termused to describe short-term memory as an active memory system that contains a "central executive" processor and two subsystems for temporarily storing auditory and visual-spatial input
working memory
organizing items of information into a meaningful unit, or chunk, that can be stored in short-term memory
the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information to either extend the usual 18-second duration of short-term memory or transfer the rehearsed information to long-term memory
maintenance rehearsal
rehearsal taht involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory
elaborative rehearsal
memory for factual information acquired at a specific time and place
episodic memory
memory for general knowledge about the world that is not associated with a time and place when the information was learned
semantic memory
memory of how to perform skilled motor activities
procedural memory
a theory tah desccribes concepts in long-term memory organized in a complex network of associations
semantic network model
models of memory in which a large network of interconnected neurons, or processing units, distributed throughout the brain simultaneously work on differend memory tasks
parallel distributed processing models
memory of previous experiences that one can consciously recollect
explicit memory
a measure of explicit memory in which a person must retrieve and reproduce information from memory
a measure of explicit memory in which a person need only decide whether or not something has been previously encountered
memory of previous experiences without conscious recollection
implicit memory
a method of activating implicit memories in which a recently presented bit of information facilitates- or "primes"- responses in a subsequent situation
a stimulus that allows us to more easily recall information from long-term memory
retrieval cue
the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by the feeling that it is just beyond your conscious state
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
a memory illusion in which people feel a sense of familiarity in a situation that they know they have never encountered before
deja vu
a memory illusion in which people believe that some work they have do ne is a novel creation, when, in fact, it is not original
the tendency for retrieval from memory being better when our state of mind during retrieval matches our state during encoding
state-dependent memory
a retrieval rule stating that retrieving information from long-term memory is most likely when the conditions at retrieval closely match the conditions present during the original learning
encoding specificity principle
the inability to remember events that occurred during the early part of life (usually, before the age of 3)
infantile amnesia
detailed and vivid memories of surprising and emotion-provoking events
flashbulb memories
distortions and alterations in witnesses' memories due to them receiving misleading information during questioning
misinformation effects
forgetting de to the passage of time
forgetting due to interference from newly learned information
retroactive interference
forgetting due to interference from previously learned information
proactive interference
forgetting due to a desire to eliminate awareness of some unpleasant or disturbing memory
motivated forgetting
motivated forgetting that occurs consciously
the long-lasting strengthening of synaptic transmission along a specific neural circuit, which is believed to be the neural basis for long-term memory
long-term potentiation
the inability to form long-term memories due to physical injury to the brain
anterograde amnesia
the loss of information previously stored in long-term memory due to physical injury to the brain
retrograde amnesia
strategies to make it easier to encode, store, and/or retrieve information

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