Glossary of Psych Ch. 2 2

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structured sets of questions or statements given to a group of people to meansure their attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavioral tendencies
a statistical measure of the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two variables, which can range from -1.00 to +1.00
correlation coefficient (r)
research designed to test cause-effect relationships between variables
experimental research
the experimental variable that the researcher manipulates
independent variable
the experimental variable that is measured because it is believed to depend on the manipulated changes in the independent variable
dependent variable
the condition in an experiment where participants are exposed to different levels of the independent variable
experimental condition
placement of research participants into experimental conditions in a manner that guarantees that all have an equal chance of being exposed to each level of the independent variable
random assignment
the condition in an experiment where participants are not exposed to the independent variable
control condition
assumptions or naive belief systems people make about which personality traits go together
implicit personality theory
the tendencey, one an event has occurred, to overestimat eour ability to have foreseen the outcome
hindsight bias
a set of procedures used in science to gather, analyze, and interpret information in a way that minimizes error and leads to dependable generalizations
scientific method
a group of subjects who are selected to participate in a research study
all of the members of an identifiable group from which a sample is drawn
the process of deciding what to believe and how to act based on a careful evaluatio nof the evidence
critical thinking
an orgainzed system of ideas that seeks to explain why two or more events are realted
specific propositions or expectations about the nature of things derived from a theory
numbers that summarize and describe the behavior or characteristics of a particular sample of participants in a study
descriptive statistics
mathematical analyses that move beyond mere description of research data to make inferences about the larger population from which the sample was drawn
inferential statistics
the use of statistical techniques to sum up a body of similar studies in order to objectively estimate the reliability and overall size of the effect
a descriptive scientific method that investigates behavior in tis natural environment
naturalistic observation
a descriptive scientific method where a group is studied from within by a researcher who records beharvior as it occorus in its natural environment
participant observation
a descriptive scientific method involving an in-depth analysis of a single subject, usually a person.
case study

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