Glossary of Psych Ch. 10

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the degree to which a test predicts other observable behavior related to the characteristic the test supposedly measures (aka criterion validity
predictive validity
a statistical technique that allows researchers to identify clusters of variables or test items that correlate with one another
factor analysis
a general intelligence factor that Spearman and other researchers believed underlies all mental abilities
general intelligence (g)
gardner's theory contends that there are at least seven distinct and relatively independent intelligences, all of which are differently developed in each of us (linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrap
multiple intelligences
individuals who easily master skills in one intellectual area
mentally retarded individuals who demonstrate exceptional ability in one specific intellectual area
sternberg's theory that there are three sets of mental abilities making up human intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical
triarchic theory of intelligence
the ability to recognize and regulate our own and others' emotions
emotional intelligence
a diagnostic category used for people who not only have an IQ score below 70, but also have difficulty adapting to the routine demands of independent living
mental retardation
a form of mental retardation caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup
down syndrome
a statistical coefficient, ranging from 0 to 1, that estimates the degree to which heredity determines intelligence within a particular human group
heritabiltiy coefficient
the extent to which genetically determined limits on IQ may increase or decrease due to environmental factors
reaction range
the realizaation that your performance on some task might confirm a negative stereotype associated with your social group
stereotype threat
the mental abilities necessary to adapt to and shape the environment
the measurement of intelligence, personality, and other mental processes
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
achievement test
the practice of encouraging supposedly superior people to repreduce, while discouraging or even preventing those judged inferior to do so
a test designed to predict a person's capacity for learning
aptitude test
the widely used American revision of the original French Binet-Simon intelligence test
Stanford-Binet intelligence test
originally, the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 (MA/CA x 100). Today, it is calculated by comparing how a person's performance deviates from the average score of her or his same-age peers, which is 100.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
the most widely used set of intelligence tests, containing both verbal and performance (nonverbal) subscales
wechsler intelligence scales
the process of establishing uniform procedures for administering a test and for interpreting its scores
the bell-shaped appearance of standardized tests when individual scores are placed in a graph. most scores cluster around the average test score, and fewer scores are found far from the average score
normal distribution
the tendency for people's performance on IQ tests to imporve from one generation to the next
flynn effect
the degree to which a test yields consistent results
the degree to which a test measures what it is designed to measure
the degree to which the items on a test are related to the characteristic the test supposedly measures
content validity

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