Glossary of Psych 55 Chapter 3
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- Is it possible to guarantee that when you do two things at the same time you are doing them the same way?
- No, researchers have suggest that the participants learn to restructure the two tasks and combine them into a single task.
- automatic verus controlled processing
- automatic processing is used on easy/familar tasks. controlled processing is used on new or difficult tasks. controlled processing can turn into automatic.
- endogenous attention
- has a voluntary aspect, top down, and originates from within the agent
- exogenous attention
- involuntary, bottom up, orignates in the external world.
- covert attention
- the phenomena where eyes may be directed at a specific spot yet visual attention might be elsewhere, covertly
- Posner thoery of attention
- 3 stages: disengage attention from current location, move attention to new location, engage attention in new location
- occurs when a stimulus or a task facilitates processing of subsequent a subsequent stimulus or task
- object-based attention
- when looking at an object, its associated parts and features are selected together
- the processs that, at a given moment, enhances some information and inhibits other inofrmation. selecting some information for further processing while inhibiting other info.
- failures of selection in space
- a lot of information simultaneously present in front of you
- failures of selection in time
- when new information arrives in a rapid stream
- change blindness
- failure to detect changes in the physical aspects of a a scene
- change deafness
- failure to detect changes in the auditory scene
- focused attention
- concentration on one source of input to the exclusion of any other
- divided attention
- when more than one source is attended and the information selected is imperfect
- attentional blink
- a short period during which incoming information is not registered
- repitition blindness
- the failure to detect the alter appearance of a stimulus when the stimuli are presented in a rapid sequence
- bottleneck attention theory
- there is a a restriction on the amount of information that can be processed at once
- dual-task interference
- type of interference where performance is hampered when you have to attend to two separate sources of input
- response bottleneck
- interference in the form of slowing down of actions that arises when one tries to select between two possible responses
- automatic processing
- used for easy or familiar taks
- controlled processing
- used for novel of difficult tasks, can eventually become automatic
- hemispatial neglect
- a deficit of attention in which one entire half of a visual scene is simply ignored, usually caused by a stroke in the right parietal lobe.
- cocktail party effect
- hearing your name at a loud party even when you are not paying attention to the person talking
- spotlight theory of attention
- spatial attention selectively brings information within a circumscribed region of space to awareness and information outside that region is more likely to be ignored
- feature integration theory (fit)
- deals with the role attention plays in selecting and binding complex info. the perceptual system is divided into separate mapes, each of which registers the presence of a different visual feature. each map contains information about the location of the features it represents.
- guided search
- search where the output for the first stage of information processing guides later serial search mechanisms. targets that cannot possibly be the target are eliminated in paralell in the feature maps.
- disjunctive/feature search
- searching where the target differs from the other characters or symbols (the distractors) by a single feature, generally easier
- a nonrelevant stimulus that is supposed to be ignored
- conjunctive search
- search in which the target is defined by several features, generally harder
- takes place before attention is even engaged
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