Glossary of Psych 372 quiz 5
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- What is the Hebb rule?
- The hypothesis that the cellular basis of learning (especially C.C.) involves strengthening of a synapse that is repeatedly active when the postsynaptic neuron fires.
- What is LTP?
- Long-term potentiation. A long term increase in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by repeated high-frequency activity at that synapse. Believed to explain some of the physical changes which accompany learning.
- How is the occurance of LTP in the hippocampus important?
- Very important for relational learning (and episodic in particular).
- What is relational learning?
- Type of learning which involves learning the relationships among individual stimuli. Interconnections within different areas of the brain (touch, sight, smell, sound, etc).
- What is episodic learning?
- A type of relational learning where one remembers sequences of events (episodes) that they witnessed, requires us to keep track of order of events.
- What is the Entorhinal cortex (input) and why is it important?
- A region of the limbic cortex that provides the major source of input to the hippocampal formation.
- What is the Dentate gyrus?
- Part of the hippocampal formation; receives inputs from the entorhinal cortex and projects to the field CA3 of the hippocampus.
- What is CA3?
- Part of the hippocampus; receives inputs from the dentate gyrus and projects to field CA1.
- What is necessary for LTP to occur?
- Calcium channels must open and so it can enter the cell. Calcium influx is necessary for LTP because the calcium acts as a second messenger and activates kinases (which are enzymes- especially CaM-KII that make cellular changes.
- What are the pre- and post-synaptic changes involved in LTP?
- -Pre-synaptically LTP results in more glutamate release.
-Post synaptically LTP results in more post-synaptic receptors and a larger active zone.
-So overall the communication between the pre-and post synaptic neuron is stronger.
- What is responsible for the increases in synaptic strength that occur during long-term potentiation?
- Research indicates that stregthening of an individual synaps appears to be accomplished by insertion of additional AMPA receptors
- What are the four major regions of the hippocampus?
- CA1, CA3, Dentate Gyrus and Entorhinal Cortex
- What is CaM-KII?
- An enzyme that must be activated by calcium; may play a role in the establishment of long term potentiation.
- What is LTD?
- long-term depression. A long term decrease in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by stimulation of the terminal button while the postsynaptic membrane is hyperpolarized or only slightly depolariced.
- What is anterograde amnesia?
- Amnesia for events that preceded some disturbance to the brain, such as a head injury or electoconvulsive shock.
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