Glossary of Psych 372 Eating
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- What is homeostasis?
- body makes restorative changes to maintain a steady internal environment
- What is negative feedback?
- Detection of a rise in a variable that turns off the correction mechanism(s) restroing it
- What is Satiety?
- A feeling of "fullness" or of being satisfied
- What is Glucose?
- Simple sugar broken down from carbohydrates
- brain's only fuel
- other cells also use glucose when available but can only import if insulin is present
- What is Glucoprivation?
- Drop in blood glucose detected by receptors in brainstem and liver
- What are triglycerides?
- How fat fuel is stored within the body, glycerol + 3 fatty acids
- What is adipose tissue?
- Cells that store triglycerides
- Amount of triglycerides within each cell determines size of cell, fatness/thiness of person
- release leptin as signal to brain of sufficient fat stores
- Where are glucose levels detected?
- In the medulla and liver
- How does the liver send signals to the brainstem?
- Via the Vagus Nerve
- What happens if glucose is plentiful within the body?
- Pancreas releases insulin, which allows:
- body cells to use glucose
- liver to store extra glucose as glycogen
- excessive glucose to be stored as triglycerides in fat cells
- What is done with excess Glucose and what must be present to do this?
- Excess glucose is stored as triglycerides in fat cells, must have insulin to do this.
- What is most responsible for feeling hungry?
- NPY (neuropeptide Y) very strongly stimulates appetite and eating
- What leads to the release of NPY and then what happens?
- -Glucoprivation activates neurons in the medulla to release NPY
- NPY excites the lateral hypothalamus to release MCH (melenin-concentrating hormone) and orexin, which both stimulate appetite (and decrease metabolism)
- What determines levels of Ghrelin?
- Rise and fall based on nutrients in guts, not blood
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