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Glossary of Psych 372 Eating

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What is homeostasis?
body makes restorative changes to maintain a steady internal environment
What is negative feedback?
Detection of a rise in a variable that turns off the correction mechanism(s) restroing it
What is Satiety?
A feeling of "fullness" or of being satisfied
What is Glucose?
Simple sugar broken down from carbohydrates
- brain's only fuel
- other cells also use glucose when available but can only import if insulin is present
What is Glucoprivation?
Drop in blood glucose detected by receptors in brainstem and liver
What are triglycerides?
How fat fuel is stored within the body, glycerol + 3 fatty acids
What is adipose tissue?
Cells that store triglycerides
- Amount of triglycerides within each cell determines size of cell, fatness/thiness of person
- release leptin as signal to brain of sufficient fat stores
Where are glucose levels detected?
In the medulla and liver
How does the liver send signals to the brainstem?
Via the Vagus Nerve
What happens if glucose is plentiful within the body?
Pancreas releases insulin, which allows:
- body cells to use glucose
- liver to store extra glucose as glycogen
- excessive glucose to be stored as triglycerides in fat cells
What is done with excess Glucose and what must be present to do this?
Excess glucose is stored as triglycerides in fat cells, must have insulin to do this.
What is most responsible for feeling hungry?
NPY (neuropeptide Y) very strongly stimulates appetite and eating
What leads to the release of NPY and then what happens?
-Glucoprivation activates neurons in the medulla to release NPY
- NPY excites the lateral hypothalamus to release MCH (melenin-concentrating hormone) and orexin, which both stimulate appetite (and decrease metabolism)
What determines levels of Ghrelin?
Rise and fall based on nutrients in guts, not blood

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