Glossary of Psych 325 module 32

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What are language elements?
Spoken: sounds, phonemes, morphemes.
Written: alphabet, pictorial
What are formal descriptions of language elements?
spoken languages
phonemes, and morphemes.
Also written language (what kind it is….)
What are two aspects of the way we perceive language and speech sounds?
 1st verbal communication,
 2nd written communication.
Q: What are the four interdisciplinary areas or language study in general?
Linguistics, Philosophy, Psychology/Neuroscience, Communication Studies.
L. P. PN. C (let poor puppy-newborns cohabitate)
In terms of language, philosophy asks what kinds of questions?
Language trying to convey meaning, so what we mean is of utmost importance which directly relates to philosophy.
Q: What is the core property of language? What does this consist of?
The core property of language is its communicative aspect which consists of a sender, a receiver and a message. S.R.M.
Q: What are the 6 properties of language?
Communicative, Symbolic, Structured, Multiple levels of analysis, Generative/productive, Dynamic. (C.S.S.M.G.D?? Can Someone Start Making Good Dialogue?)
In terms of language, what is a Phone?
the technical term for these kinds of sounds, certain vocal sounds that have the potential to acquire relevance in speech, that range from things we know in our language like “T” and “A” to sounds like clicking or whistling that could potentially be used in speech but in ours is not. More or less a physical description of sounds.
What is a Phoneme?
o Smallest unit of speech that has the ability to change the perception of an utterance. Ex. Cat and Bat.
o One phoneme can comprise a set of (allo) phones. Things that are physically sounding different, but where the differences are ignored by listener or speaker within that language, don’t make any difference when you actually go to interpret the word.
• Morpheme
o Smallest unit that denotes meaning (usually a word)
o Comprise the lexicon (set of all morphemes), set of all language words we can produce that have a meaning.
How many phonemes are there in the English lang?
Approximately 41 different phonemes in English lang.
What is Elusive about word boundaries in human speech?
actually picking out words is a complex process which seems easy. Our brains do it but they don’t exist clearly in spoken language. Ex. When you look on an amplitude chart showing sound waves over time as they are spoken, you cannot easily figure out where the word boundaries are. The nice separation that we here, in terms of the sound waves, doesn’t really exist. Only in our minds which have processed it that way. Physically the gaps are not there, phonemes of words are very close together.
How many phonemes a second can most people differentiate?
50 phonemes/sec in native lang
How do we differentiate phonemes in our own language so quickly?
Phonemes are coarticulated / overlap in time, so you don’t finish with one before you start the next one. More fluid than you would think.
oHigh degree of redundancy and predictability built in, so that if you know the first 2 or 3 then you will know what comes next because of rules, / expectations, makes it easier to understand speech, makes it faster
What are content mophemes?
Content morphemes: refer to the basic root of a word that carries the main meaning of a word. Ex. Dog
What are function morphemes?
Function morphemes: refer to prefixes and suffixes which alter the detailed meaning in context.

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