Glossary of Psych 102 Prelim 2
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- reduced relative-main clause ambiguities
- ex) The horse raced past the barn fell
- prepositional phrase attachment ambiguities
- The spy saw the cop with the binoculars.
The spy saw the cop with the revolver.
- one-referent context
- is ambiguous
People look at the empty towel briefly because they think they have to put the apple on the towel
- two-referent context
- -the second towel becomes irrelevant.
-you need the sentence to explain which apple.
- point of apple display referent tasks
- resolution of syntactic ambiguity is influence by visual context in real time.
- Wernicke's aphasia
- -are relatively fluent
not halted in their speech
often dont make sense
associated with somewhat problematic production of speech, but mostly problematic comprehension
are okay with syntax but not symantics
- Broca's area
- tends to happen if you have damage in the lower frontal area in brain
emotional language tends to come out more smoothly (is probably stored in right hemisphere)
-in front left of the brain in front of motor cortex
- surface dyslexia
- aka phonological dyslexia
have trouble naming nonsense words that are otherwise pronouncable
slow and inaccurate naming of irregular words (ex. pint, yacht, chimera)
- deep dyslexia
- tends to be acquired
usually due to some kind of brain trauma later in life
like surface dyslexics, have poor mapping between orthography and phonology.
unlike surface dyslexics, they also have ppor mapping between orthography and semantics.
ex) might say "boat" instead of "yacht"
- anticipation error
- sound appears in word before its intended pronounciation
ex_ take my bike--> bake my bike.
most common kind
-reveals the furthur utterances that were already planned while speaking
- preservation errors
- -opposite of anticipation erors
-sounds are kept in mind and reappear in the wrong place.
ex) pulled a tantrum-->pulled a pantrum
-an error where sounds are mixed up within words or phrases
- the McGurk effect
- -the lips make movements according to /ga/ but the acutal sounds are /ba/ and the perception becomes /da/
-because the sound reaching your ears is contradictory to the lip movements so you correct ofr it in your head.
-visual input has an immediate and compelling influence on your speech perception.
- prediction-based learning
- like a kid's own kind of backpropagation in his/her head.
-system is able to generate own predictions and then evaluate the truth value of those by comparing actual output to predicted output.
- domain-specific linguistic principles
- -abstract universal rules that determine the range of grammars seen in natural language.
- domain-general cognitive principles
- the ability to encode hierarcical structure into any time-dependent signal
ex) dancing, speech, running, bird songs,
- language innateness
- Noam Chompsky
-you've got a part of your brain that is an organ devoted to language and is programmed to mature at a certain rate.
-matures relatively independently, sort of like your liver,
-knows it's going to be learning language and just needs to figure out which one.
- positive evidence
- -are all sentences that do belong to the grammar.
-however, if you only hear positive evidence, you can't draw the line between a grammatical and non-grammatical sentence.
- negative evidence
- -have to have negative evidence so you know what doesn't belong.
-problem is it looks like kids don't gete negative evidence.
-parents usually only correct for semantics.
-they don't get negative evidence for grammar but they do learn it....so this is an argument that there must be some innate strucutre at work.
- the subset principle
- theres a small hypothesized grammar section so all you need is positive evidence to expand that circle.
-but..w.hy would a baby with a grammar section thats all perfect grammar produce ungrammatical sentences?
- innateness hypothesis
- According to this view, children are able to learn the “superficial” grammar of a particular language because all intelligible languages are founded on a “deep structure” of grammatical rules that are universal and that correspond to an innate capacity of the human brain.
- negative reinforcement
- a constant, annoying thing about the environment, and then, when they do the right thing, the bad thing goes away.
-REMOVAL of a BAD thing
- perceptual learning
- involves relatively long-lasting changes to an organism's perceptual system that improve its ability to respond to its environment.
ex) imprinting, attention weighting, differentiation.
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