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Glossary of Psych 101 Mid-term 2

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Response Cost
Negative Punishment
Aversive Punishment
Positive Punishment
Positive Reinforcement
When a response is strengthened by the presentation of a stimulus that makes u feel goooood
Negative Reinforcement
A response is strengthened by the removal of a bad stimulus
Operant Extinction
The weakening and eventual dissapearnec of a response because it is no longer reinforced
Shaping
Successive reinforcement toward a final response

(Think of the movie "good boy, you're learning to speak" etc etc etc etc)
Extinction Training
-Identify the positive stimulus, take it away, tolerate an intitial increase in response b4 a decrease occurs

(child whines so you ignore him/her)
DRO (Differential reinforecement of other behavior)
Kind of like extinction training

-You locate the undesired behavior
-You find something that works better (like a child asking for something in a polite tone)
-Reinforce this behavior
Variable Ratio schedule
Reinforcement is given only after a set number of responses ON AVERAGE

VR-3 means that on average, if the animal pulls on a leva three times, he gun get some grub
Fixed Interval Schedule
The first response that occurs after a FIXED time interval is reinforced

So if you wait three minutes, u then reinforce the animal as soon as it pulls the level...

After a while of this, it'll start expecting it just before that given time has passed...

Will produce a stream of responses close to the time of getting grub
Variable Interval Schedule
After waiting an average time, you give them some grub at the first response. You again wait an average of time, and then give them some grub...

Less consistent grubbing, so youre always looking for it...
kind of like Astronomy how you know theres a test every week but you don't know when


More steady rate of response
Escape Conditioning
The organism learns a response to terminate an aversive stimulus...like putting on warm clothes to avoid feeling cold
Avoidance conditioning
Learning a response that voids the aversive stiumulus alltogether

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