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Glossary of Psych 100 (OSUN)

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Developed the first tests used to determine the mental age of school children
Alfred Binet
Intelligence is affected by...?
Enviromental experiences
The chronological age typical given to the level of performance
Mental Age
2 Kinds of intelligence
Abstract concept
Socially constructed concept
a mental quality consinsisting of the ability to
learn form experience
solve problems
Use knowledge to adopt to new situations


Intelligence
Theory of Multiple Intelligence by Gardner
Academics, musical abilities, spatial, social understanding, knowing about nature
Limited mental ability, retains an exceptptional specific skills
savant syndrome
the ability to perceive, express , understand and regulate emotions
Emotional Intellience
Low test score and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of lving indepentently
Mental Retardation
Genetic and often leading to severe mental retardation
Down Syndrome
usually well adjusted
has contoversy surrounding their programs
necessarily have higher grade
labeling and selfesteem issues


Gifted Childreen
being able to produce novel and valuable ideas
Creativity
5 componentss of creativity
expertise
imaginative thinking skills
venturesome personality
intrinsic motivation
creative enviroment



Children who have been diagnosed with autism show defecits in Theory of Mind tasks - True or False
True
Seperation Anxiety peaks in infants around 12 months of age
12 months
The rapid, innate learning mechanism knowns as imprinting was investigated by
Konrad Lorenz
Mary Ainsworth strange situation studies found the majority of children to be insecurely attached to their caregivers - True or False
False
Two Newborn reflexes
Rooting reflex
Swipting reflex
Social Bonds are Universal - True or False
True
Actively seaking to be close and gain attention is what ___ months to ___ years
6 months to 3 years
strong emotional tie binding us to another.
attachment
8 - 13 mths
Prefer Familiar Face
Increases Survival

Stranger Anxiety
12 mths
Distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs
Seperation Anxiety
suggests that attachment had a biological basis

Attachment Theory
Has a sensitive period for forming attachments
Birth to 3 yrs
Rapid, innate, learning that takes place during a critical period.
attachment to the first moving object seen
Imprinting
showed wiwth monkeys that food alone is insufficient to bring about attachment
(Nature vs. Nurture)
Wire Monkey vs. Cloth Monkey

Harry Harlow
mother used as safe base, at ease when she is present, exploring where they see here, upset when she leaves and comforted instantly when she returns
Securely attached Children
little interest in exploring, when she returns child avoids her or acts out.
Insecurely attached children
measures the strength and awaiting of attachment between child and mother
Strange Situation
Child Rearing:
Parents impose rules + expect obiedence
Linked to lower social skills and self-esteem

Authoritarian
submit to cchildres desires make few demands use little punishment
Linked to immaturity and aggressive behavior
Permissive
Study of changes that occur in peoples abilities and dispositions as they grow older
Developmental psychology
Fertilized Egg
Zygote
Conception to 2 weeks,
Undergoes two weeks of rapid cell division,
Attachment to uterine wall

Zygote
Cells begin to specialize and form organs
Six Weeks period
Heart begins to beat

Embryo
Embryonic Developments:

3rd week

Neutral tube develops
Embryonic Developments:

21 days

Eyes begin to appear
Embryonic Developments:

4th week

first appearance of arma nd leg buds, chambers of the heart take shape
Embryonic Developments:

5th - 8th weeks

Arms and legs differeatiate further, face starts to form, intestinal track develops
Embryonic Developments:

7th - 8th Week

Sexual genes impact formation of sex organs
9th week - Birth
Fetus
By 3 months
fetus swallos and urinates
4th - 6th months
mother may feel fetus move
thumn sucking, response to loud noises and lights
5 1/2 mths capable of surving outside womb

7th - 9th months
Rapid weight gain
critical develipment time for the brain
Aents such as chemicals or viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Teratogens
resticts blood flow to fetus, higher rates of miscarriage, slows fetal groth, high incidence of perterm briths and lower birthweights, greater probablilyt of respiratory, SIDS
Smoking
Facial deformities (1st trimester)
Defective libmbs, face, and heart
Below average intelligence/ mental retardation (2nd/3rd trimester)
Adult with FAS high incidence of mental disorders
(depression or anxiety)





FAS ( Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
When touched on the cheek, an infant will open his/her mouth and search for his mothers nipple
Rooting Reflex
prefer mother odor and voice, automatically turns heard in direction of human voices
Perfer to look at objects 8 - 12 inches away
Gaze longer at face like figures

Infancy (0-24 months)
Brain Development:

Rapid develipment of nerve cells

Before Birth
Brain Development:

had most of the baincells you will ever have, nervous system immature

At Birth
Brain Development:

Neural networks have groth spurt

Post Natal
Biological groth process that enable orderly changes in behavior
Maturation

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