Glossary of Psych: Social

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social perception
processes by which we com to know/evaluate persons
process you go through to explain causes of behavior
internal causes
(dispositional) - reflect characteristics of the person
external causes
(situational) - arise from the situation
"attribution theory"
how we go about attributing behavior to internal or external influences
Kelley's Attribution Theory
for behaviors that are consistent, people will make personal attribtions when consensus/distinctiveness are low. people will make stimulus attributions when consensus/distinctiveness are high.
Fundamental Attribution Error
tendency to attribute behavior of others to internal causes and underestimate external causes. (1-focus on person, 2-adjust to account for situation)
Just-World Hypothesis
tendency to assume that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people.
Self-Serving Bias
(defensive attribution) - tendency to take credit for one's successes (dispositional attribution) and blame external causes for failure (situational attribution)
primacy effect
people are influenced more by info they receive early in an interaction rather than info gained later (a cognitive confirmation bias)
behavioral-confirmation biases
we use our existing beliefs to interpret new information. this in turn affects our behavior. this may create false support for to fit our existing beliefs. (three-step chain)
three-step chain
1-perceiver forms opinion of target; 2-perceiver behaves in a manner consistent with formed opinion; 3-target unknowingly adjusts behavior to the perceiver's actions.
social comparison
how we evaluate our thoughts/ feelings/ behaviors/ abilities in relation to other people
impression management
how we present ourselves in terms of the image we hop to present
how much one observes reactions of others to determine how to react
changing one's behavior or beliefs to bring it in line with a group standard
normative social influence
conformity influenced by the need for social approval(Sherif's 1936 illusion exp.) - can still disagree privately (public conformity)
informationanal social influence
conformity influenced be need to be right (Asch's 1955 line- length exp.) - you change your beliefs (private conformity)
conditions that strengthen conformity
1-feel incompetent/insecure; 2-admire group status; 3-group has @ least 3; 4-group unanimous; 5-no prior stance (esp. public); 6-conformity neg. correlated with self- esteem; 7-cultural respect for social standards
organization of our beliefs and behaviors towards a person, object, event, or idea
conditions under which attitudes better predict behavior
1-attitude is strong, 2-other influences minimal, 3-attitude specifically relevent to behavior, 4-you're made aware/concious of attitude
conditions under which behavior determines attitudes
1-engaged in role-playing (Zimardo), 2-when influenced by "foot-in-the-door" phenomenon (Freedman&Fraser)
prescribed actions expected of one who occupied specific socila positions
cognitive-dissonance theory
(Fetsinger)describes an inconsistency between one's actions and one's thoughts. To relieve this discrepency: 1-out att. may be brought in line with our actions or 2)our attitudes may remain intact, but significance of our behavior may be downplayed.
"self-perception" theory
(Bem)suggests behaviors nearly always preceed attitudes; attitudes not fully formed until we find ourselves engaged in behavior
process of changing attitudes
central route to persuasion
people think carefully about message and are influenced by its arguments
peripheral route to persuasion
people do not think carefully about the message and are influenced by superficial cues (ie attractiveness of source)
change in behavior in response to a specific request
compliance to an explicit command
compliance techniques
1-foot in the door, 2-low ball, 3-door in the face
foot in the door
compliance technique - tendency to make initial act favorable to an attitude, later greater actions possible as attitude strengthens
low ball
compliance technique - tendency to follow through on a commitment even when conditions of agreement change
door in the face
compliance technique - tendency to comply with second request after non-compliance to initial request
three factors that influence obedience
1-authority, 2-victim, 3-situation (Miligram)
group influences on decision making
1-risky shift, 2-group polarization, 3-group think
risky shift
group makes riskier decisions than the individual
group polarization
group discussion enhances dominant point of view
groups desire to reach harmonious decision overrides consideration of alternatives
group influences on behavior
1-social facilitation, 2-social loafing, 3-deindividuation
social facilitation
improved performance with others - raied arousal (aids easy tasks, hinders difficult ones)
social loafing
diminished effort in group task
group setting arouses people and diminishes sense of responsibility - uninhibited behavior may result
behavior intended to inflict harm on another individual who is motivated to avoid it
influences on agression
media violence, biology (testosterone), aversive stim. (heat), situational cues (weapons effect)
unselfish regard for welfare of others
bystander effect
tendency not to give aid when others are around
conditions that strengthen helping behavior
(Darley&Latane)1-minimized bystander effect, 2-situation not ambiguous, 3-not in a hurry, 4-just observed someone else being helpful, 5-victim similar to self, 6-in good mood
egoism as explanation of altruism
(social exchange theory) - helping others results when anticipated rewards exceed anticipated costs
sociobiology as explanation of altruism
perpetuation of genes promoted by helping others
factors that increase attraction
1-proximity(geographic nearness), 2-physical(matching hypoth regardless) attractiveness, 3-similarity (consensual validation)
mere-exposure effect
attraction to stimulus that results from increased exposure to it
matching hypothesis
people are more likely to form long term relationships with people who are roughly equally as physically attractive as themselves
4 factors that influence maintinence of a relationship
(Gottman's 4 horsemen)criticism, contempt, defensiveness, withdrawal

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