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Glossary of Psych: Memory

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Afterimage
A visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed.
Amnesia
A significant memory loss that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting. See also Anterograde amnesia, Retrograde amnesia.
Anterograde amnesia
Loss of memories for events that occur after a head injury.
Attention
Loss of memories for events that occur after a head injury.
Chunk
Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.
Clustering
A group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit.
Cognition
The tendency to remember similar or related items in groups.
Conceptual hierarchy
The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
Connectionist models
A multilevel classification system based on common properties among items.
Consolidation
See parallel distributed processing (PDP) models.
Decay theory
A hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory.
Declarative memory system
The idea that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.
Dual-coding theory
Paivio's theory that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall.
Elaboration
Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.
Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
Sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate (activate) it.

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