Glossary of Psych. Chapters 9-11

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-mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
-mental image or best example of a category
-matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
 methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
 contrasts with the usually speedier–but also more error-prone--use of heuristics
 simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
 usually speedier than algorithms
 more error-prone than algorithms
 sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
 contrasts with strategy-based solutions
Confirmation Bias
 tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
 inability to see a problem from a new perspective
 impediment to problem solving
Representativeness Heuristic
 judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes
 may lead one to ignore other relevant information
Availability Heuristic
 estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
 if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
 Example: airplane crash
 tendency to be more confident than correct
 tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments
 the way an issue is posed
 how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
Belief Perseverance
 clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Origins of Intelligence Testing
 Mental Age
 Stanford-Binet
 Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
 defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100
 on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
 the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test
Mental Age
 a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet
 chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
General Intelligence (g)
 factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities
 measured by every task on an intelligence test
Multiple Intelligences
 Savant Syndrome
 Social Intelligence
 Emotional Intelligence
Savant Syndrome
 condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill
Social Intelligence
 the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully
Emotional Intelligence
 ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
Intelligence & Creativity
 the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
2 and 2
 most widely used intelligence test
 subtests
**performance (nonverbal)
Aptitude Test
 a test designed to predict a person’s future performance
 aptitude is the capacity to learn
Achievement Test
 a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Genetic Influences
2 and 2
 The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores
 Heritability
**the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
**variability depends on range of populations and environments studied
Environmental Influences
2 and 1
 The Schooling Effect
Group Differences
 Stereotype Threat
**A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
-the study of "whys" of behavior---
-The factors that direct and energize behavior of humans and other organisms
-a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Instinct theories
-there is some inborn, genetic component to motivation
Drive-Reduction Theory
-the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
-A motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior in order to fulfill a need
-The desired goals that underlie behavior
-body’s tendency to maintain a steady balanced or constant internal state
Define incentive, and the Incentive theory
-motivation results from the "pull" of external environmental stimuli.
-a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Maslow’s Hierarchy: Ordering Motivational Needs
-begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied
then higher-level
-safety needs become active
-then psychological needs become active
The 5 needs in order by Maslow:
-Physiological (hunger & thirst)
-Belongingness & love
-Self actualization (live up to one's fullest potential)
Anorexia Nervosa symptoms
-when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly (>15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
Bulimia Nervosa symptoms
-disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Achievement Motivation
-Achievement involves the need for success, for doing better than others, and for mastering challenging tasks.
-Research with intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation shows that extrinsic rewards can lower interest and achievement motivation.
intrinsic motivation
-Motivation by which people participate in an activity for their own enjoyment, not for the reward it will get them
extrinsic motivation
-Motivation by which people participate in an activity for a tangible reward
3 components of Emotion
-physiological arousal
-expressive behaviors
-conscious experience
Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
-To experience emotion one must: be physically aroused; cognitively label the arousal
Catharsis hypothesis
-“releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
General Adaptation Syndrome
-Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages
Health consequences of Catasrophes, Significant Life changes, and Daily hassles
-especially stressful when appraised as negative and uncontrollable
-Heart disease
Type A personality
-Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Type B personality
-Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people
Coping with stress
-Aerobic Exercise

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