Glossary of Psych. Ch. 11

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an inner state that energizes behavior toward the fulfillment of a goal
an unlearned, relatively fixed pattern of behavior that is essential to a species' survival
the idea that an imbalance in homeostasis creates a physiological need, which produces a drive that motivates the organism to satisfy the need
drive-reduction theory
the tendency for organisms to keep physiological systems internally balanced by adjusting them in response to change
a physiological state of arousal that moves an organism to meet a need
a theory of motivation stating that behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli, called positive incentives, and avoiding undesirable stimuli, called negative incentives
incentive theory
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
motivation to engage in a behavior or an activity because one finds it interesting or enjoyable for its own sake
intrinsic motivation
motivation to engage in a behavior or an activity because of the external rewards it can provide
extrinsic motivation
maslow's progression of human needds, in which those that are the most basic, namely physiological needs, must be sufficiently satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become activated
hierarchy of needs
the ultimate goal of growth, being the realization of one's full potential
a learned preconception about how a series of events, perceived as being sexual, are likely to occur
sexual script
the four stages of sexual responding- excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution - first identified by Masters and Johnson
sexual response cycle
a male sex hormone found in both men and women that has a positive influence on sexual desire. The additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puber
forced sexual intercourse that occurs either on a date or between people who are acquainted or romantically involved. Also known as date rape
acquaintance rape
the false belief that deep down, women enjoy forcible sex and find it sexually exciting
rape myth
the degree to which a person is suxually attracted to persons of the other sex and/or to person of the same sex
sexual orientation
the sexual orientation in which a person is sexually attracted primarily to members of the other sex
the sexual orientation in which a person in sexually attracted primarily to members of the same sex
the sexual orientation in which a person is sexually attracted to members of both sexes
a system of cultural beliefs, values, and customs that exalts heterosexuality and denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual forms of behavior or identity
being full to satisfaction, in this case, by food
a level of weight that the body works to maintain
set point
a desire to overcome obstacles and to meet high standards of excellence
need for achievement (n-ach)
a test in which people "project" their inner feelings and motives through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures
thematic apperception test (TAT)
a positive or negative feeling state that typically includes some combination of physiological arousal, cognitive appraisal, and behavioral expression
a theory that emotion-provoking events induce specific physiological changes in the autonomic nervous system that our brain automatically interprets as specific emotions
james-lange theory
a theory that emotion-provoking events simultaneously induce both physiological responses and subjective states that are labeled as emotions
cannon-bard theory
a machine that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and palm perspiration
a theory of emotion suggesting that our emotional states are sometimes determined by experiencing physiological arousal and then attaching a cognitive label to the arousal
two-factor theory
a theory of emotion suggesting that every emotion triggers an opposite emotion
opponent-process theory

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