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Glossary of Psyc. GRE

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Learning
permenant or stable change in behavior as the result of experience.
Thorndike
Law of Effect
-precurser of operant conditioning
-people do what rewards them and stop doing what doesn't.
Lewen
Theory of Association
-forerunner of behaviorism
-grouping things together based on the fact that they occur together in time and space.
Pavlov
Classical Conditioning
-teaching an org. to respond to a neutral stimulus by pairing it with a non-neutral stimulus.
-salivating dog
Skinner
Operant Conditioning
-instrumental conditioning
-influence through the use of reinforcement
-skinner box
UCS
Unconditioned Stimulus
-normally occuring
CS
Conditioned to occur
UCR
Normally occuring response
CR
Conditioned to occur
4 methods of Stimulus Presentation
1. Stimulus Conditioning
2. High/Second Order
3. Forward Conditioning
4. Backward Conditioning
Stimulus Conditioning
Presented together
High/Second Order
previous conditioned stimulus now acts as the UCS
Shaping
reinforcement for successive approximations
Primary Reinforcement
reinforcing on its own
ie. food or water
Secondary Reinforcement
Learned reinforcement
ie, money
Negative Reinforcement
reinforcement through the removal of something
2 Differences between neg. reinforcement and punishment
-NR encourages behavior, punishment discourages it.
-NR removes a negative even, punishment introduces it.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
set number of responses
Fixed interval Schedule
set time
Variable Ratio Sched.
variable set of correct responses
variable interval Schedule
variable time of correct responses
Heider, Osgood, Festing
Homeostasis Theories
Balance,Conguity & Cog. Dissonance Theory
-people are motivated by a desire to be balance in their feelings and actions
Hull
Performance = Drive x Habitat
First motivated by drive then by old successful habits.
Tolman, Vroom
Expectancy Theory
Performance = Exp. x Value
-people are motivated by goals they believe are attainable
Murray, McClellend
Need for Achievment Theory
nAch
motivated by a need to achieve success
Miller
Approach-Avoidance Theory
the further one is from a goal they focus on the pros. The closer they are they focus on the cons
Hedonism
Motivation to avoid pain and pursue pleasure
Premack Principle
people are motivated to do what they do not want to do by rewarding themselves after completion
Hebb
medium amount of arousal is best for performance
Yerkes-Dodson Effect
Optimum arousal is never at the extremes. Inverted U shape
Undergeneralization
failure to generalize a stimulus
Response Learning
one learns what to do in response to a trigger
ie. Fire alarm
Aversive Conditioning
Neg. reinforcement to control behavior
Autoshaping
experiment using an apparatus allowing animals to control its reinforcements through behavior.
Albert Bandura
Bobo Doll
Modelling
Garcia Effect
Evolutionary Programming
animals are programed to make connections through evolution.
ie, rat nausea
Hull-Spense Theory
Discrimination Learning
can learn to respond differently to different stimuli
Language
meaningful arrangement of sound
Phonemes
discreet sounds that make up words but have no meaning on their own.
Morphemes
made up of phonemes
smallest units of meaning
ie, boy, or -ing
Syntax
arrangement of words into sentences
Grammer
rules of the interrelationships b/w morphemes and syntax
Prosody
tone or inflection
Chomsky
Transformational Grrammer
Surface and Deep Structure
Overregularization
overapplication of grammar rules
Overextension
generalizing names
Telegraphic Speech
speech w/out articles or extras
"me go"
Holophastic Speech
one word to convey who meaning
Ben Whorf
Whorfian Hypothesis
culture influences language
Brown
Children self-correct language with experience
Nelson
language begins with the onset of active speech
Labov
Ebonics
Black language
Osgood
studied symantics and created differential charts
-good............Bad-
3 Stages of Memory
Sensory, Shortterm, Longterm
Sensory Memory
lasts only seconds
Iconic or echoic
Sperling
Iconic Memory
-sensory memory for vision
-we see more then we remember
Echoic Memory
-sensory memory for hearing
Neisser
Icon
lasts about 1 second
Short-Term Memory
-lasts seconds or minutes
-capacity for 7 +_2
-chunking items can increase capacity
-largely auditory and items encoded phonologically
-rehearsal will keep things in STM
Primary Rehearsal
Maintenance rehearsal
-repeating material to hold in STM
Secondary Rehearsal
elaborative rehearsal to transfer to LTM
Allan Paivio
Dual-Code Hypothesis
Items are better remembers if encoded visually and semantically.
Craik and Lockhart
learning and recall depend on depth of processing
Paired Associate Learning
behaviorist
one item learned with and then cues another
Elizabeth Loftus
memory of traumatic events is altered by the way that questions about the event are asked.
Karl Lashley
memories stored diffusely in the brain.
Donald Hebb
memory involves synapse and neural pathway change making a memory tree.
Brenda Milner
Patient HM who was given a lesion in the hippocampus to treat epilepsy. Could not add anything to LTM
Factors Helping Memory Retrieval
acoustic dissimilarity
semantic dissimilarity
brevity
familiarity
concreteness
meaning
subject importance
Savings
how much info remains in LTM by assessing how long it takes to learn something the second time.
Encoding Specificity Principle
material is more likely to be remembered if recalled in same context it was stored.
Episodic Memory
details, events
Semantic Memory
general knowledge
Herman Ebbinghouse
studied memory semantically -used lists of nonsense syllables to study STM
-Forgetting curve that drops sharply and then levels off in slight downward trend
Bartlett
-memory is reconstructive.
-people are more likely to remember ideas or semantics rather then details or grammar.
Decay/Trace Theory
Memories fade with time
Interferance Theory
competing info blocks retrieval
Eidetic Memory
Photographic Memory
Ziegarnik Effect
recollection is better for uncompleted tasks then completed ones.
Cognitive Psyc.
study of thinking, processing, and reasoning.
Concept
how one represents the relationship b/w two things
Mental Set
preconcieved notion of how to look at a problem
Schema
cognitive structure that includes ideas about events or objects and attributes that accompany them
Script
idea about the way events typically unfold
Prototype
representative or usual type of event or object
Insight
new perspective on an old problem
Heuristic
problem solving strategy that uses rule of thumb or shortcut based on what has worked previously
Deductive Reasoning
specific conclusion that must follow from the info given
Inductive Reasoning
general rules that are inferred from specifics
Logical Reasoning Errors
Atmosphere Effect
Semantic Effect
Confirmation Bias
Atmosphere Effect
conclusion is influenced by the way info is phrased
Semantic Effect
believing in conclusions b/c of what you know or thing to be true rather then what logically follows from the info given
Confirmation Bias
Remembering and using info that confirms what you already know.
Reaction Time
used in cognitive testing
Stroop Effect
decreased speed in naming the color of ink used to print words when the words themselves are different colors
Bottom-Up Processing
data driven
recognizing an item from data or details
Top Down Processing
guided by larger concepts
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Physical---Emotions
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Physical II Emotional
(occur simultaneously)
Cognitive Theory of Emotion
Schacter/Singer
physical--thoughts--emotion
Nativist Theory
perception and cognition are largely innate
Structuralist Theory
Perception is the sum tolal of sensory input
Gestalt Psychology
People see the world as organized wholes
Absolute Threshold
minimum amount of stimuli that can be detected 50% of the tiime
Weber
Differential Threshold
just noticeable difference
minimum diff necessary for detection of a change in intensity
Terminal Threshold
upper limit after which stimuli cannot be detected
Intensity Perception Theories
Weber's Law
Fechner's Law
J.A. Swets Theory of Signal Detection
Weber's Law
A stimulus needs to be increased by a constant fraction in order to be noticed as noticably different
Fechner's Law
the strength of a stimulus must be significantly increased to produced a slight difference in sensation
J.A. Swet
Theory of Signal Detection
sees motivation as a factor in signal detection
Dichotic Presentation
used in studies of selective attention
Lorenz, Tinbergen & von Frisch
Nobel prize winners in ethology
Lorenz
known for his work with imprinting, animal aggression, releasing stimuli and fixed action patterns
Imprinting
displayed by a following response
Releasing Stimuli
automatic, instinctual fixed action patterns
4 Defining Characteristics of Fixed Action Patterns
uniform patterns
perf. by maj.of the species
complex
can't be interupted
Tinbergen
Stickleback Fish
Hering Gull Chicks
Frisch
Studied honeybees
Cannon
coined fight or flight
Genes
basic unit of heredit
made up of DNA
organized into chromosomes
Gamete
sperm or ovum
haploid
23 single chromosomes
Zygote
pertilized egg cell
diploid
23 pairs of chromosomes
Alleles
possible dominant and recessive gene variations for each characteristic
Characteristics of Innate or Instinctual Behaviors
1.present in all normal members of a species
2.stereotypic
3.independent of learning and experience
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisims
to prevent inbreeding
1. behavioral Isolation
2. Geographic Isolation
3. Mechanical Isolation
4. Seasonal Isolation
Sexual Dimorphism
structural differences b/w the sexes
Process of sensation
Reception: sense receptors detect a stimulus
Sensory Transduction: change psysical sensation into an electrical message
Electrical Transduction: follows neural pathways to the brain
Cornea
protective coating on the outside of the eye
Lens
behind the cornea
Ciliary muscles allow it to bend to focus an image on the retina
Retina
on the back of the eye
recieves light messages from the lens
Receptor Cells
Rods and cones
Ganglion Cells
make up the optic nerves
Vision Theories
Opponent-color Theory
Tri-Color Theory
Wald Herring
Opponent Color Theory
-2 types of color sensitive cells exist
-cones respond to red-green and blue-yellow
-when one pair is stimulated the other is inhibited
Young + Helmholz
Tri-Color Theory
suggests 3 types of receptors for blue, red, green
Timbre
complexity of sound waves
Outer Ear
pinna & auditory canal
-vibrations travel down the canal to the middle ear
Middle Ear
tympanic membrane (eardrum)stretched across the auditory canal
-vibrations bump against the tympanic membrane causing ossicles to vibrate
Inner Ear
-resp. for hearing and balance
-begins with the oval window which is tapped upon by the stapes. Vibrations then activate the fluid filled cochlea which contains the ear parts for hearing
Helmholz
Place-Resonance Theory
diff. parts of the basilar membrane responsible for difference frequencies
Gustation
Taste: 4 Types:
sweet
bitter
sour
salt
Cutaneous
4 senses:
hot, cold, touch, pain
Orienting Reflex
tendency to turn toward an object that has touched you
Proprioception
info from receptors tell us the positioning of our bodies
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Pathway that runs to and from the CNS
(afferent-toward)
(efferent-away)

Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
controls voluntary movements of muscle
Autonomic Nervous System
controls involuntary muscles including:
digestion
blood circ.
breathing

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
Sympathetic Nervous System
Controls arousal
temp control
blood circ.
pupil dilation
threat/fear response
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Recouperation after arousal
Spinal Cord
inner core - gray matter (cell bodies and dendrites)
outer core- white matter
(nerve fibres, axon bundles and myelin sheathing)
Brain
extension of the spine
developed from base to front
Hind Brain
Medula Oblongata
Cerebellum
Pons
Base of Reticular Formation
Mid Brain
Upper Reticular Formation
Tectum
Tegmentum
Forebrain
Corticospinal Tract
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Limbic System
Cerebral Hemisphere
Cerebral Cortex
Medulla Oblongata
controls:
breathing
heartbeat
bloodpressure
Cerebellum
controls muscle coordination and posture
Pons
connects brain to spine
Base of Reticular Formation
controls:
alertness
thirst
sleep
involuntary muscles like heart
Tectum
vision and hearing
Tegmentum
sleep, arousal and eye movement
Corticospinal Tract
connection b/w spine and brain
Thalamus
channels sensory info into the cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus
controls ANS motivations like hunger, thirst, and pituitary gland
Limbic System
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Cigulate Gyrus
Cerebral Hemispheres
Corpus Collosum
RT Hem
LT Hem
Cerebral Cortex
Frontal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Pituitary Gland
master gland of the endocrine or hormone system
Hippocampus
memory
encoding new info
Amygdala
emotional reactions
Cigulate Gyrus
links areas dealing with emotion and decisions
Left Hem
speech and motor control
Right Hem
spatial perception & musical function
Frontal Lobe
motor, speech, reasoning and problem solving
Broca's and Wernicke's area
Occipital Lobe
vision
Parietal Lobe
somatosensory
Temporal Lobe
Hearing
Ventricles
chambers filled with cerebrospinal fluid that insulate the brain from shock
Superior Colliculus
visual reflexes
bumps on the brainstem
Inferior Colliculus
Auditory reflexes
Basal Ganglia
controls lg muscle movement
degeneration: Parks and Huntingtons
Apraxia
inability to organize movement
Agnosia
difficulty processing sensory info
Aphasia
language disorder
Alexia
inability to read
Agraphia
inability to write
Broca's Aphasia
can understand speech but difficulty speaking
Wernicke's Aphasia
Can speak but doesn't understand how to correctly choose words
Hyperphagia
no feeling of satiation of hunger or thirst
Parts of the neuron
dendrites
cell body
axon hillock
myelin Sheath
Schwann Cell
Nodes of Ranvier
Terminal Buttons
Cell Membrane
Synaptic Gap
Dendrites
neural branch that recieves impulses-change throughout life
Cell Body
Soma
Largest portion
Gray matter
Nucleus that directs neural activity
Axon Hillock
connection b/w the soma and axon
Axon
-transmits impulses of the neuron
-bundles of nerve fibres
Myelin Sheath
allows faster conduction
Steps of neural transmission
1. Resting Potential
2. Presynaptic Cell Fires
3. Post Synaptic Reception
4. Post Synaptic Potential Stimulation
5. Action Potential Stimulation
6. Action Potential sent to terminal buttons
7. Absolute Refractory Period
8. Relative Refractory Period
Resting Potential
Inactivated state.
Negatively charged
Presynaptic Cell fires
and releases neurotransmitters from terminal buttons as a messenger to other neurons
Post Synaptic Reception
detect the presence of neurotransmitters and cause the ion channels to open.
Post Synaptic Potential
changes in neural cell's charge as the result of stimulation.
2 Forms: EPSP & IPSP
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential
EPSP- positive charge allowed into the cell from the outside are in a process called depolarization
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential
IPSP-few positive charges in the cell body are let out. Cell becomes hyperpolarized and less likely to fire.
Action Potential Stimulation
causes cell to fire
Action Potential to terminal Buttons
meets the minimum threshold and fires
All or None Law
once a minimum threshold for stimulation is met the nerve impulse will be met and fires
Absolute Refractory Period
time after the neuron fires and cannot respond to stimulation
Relative Refractory Period
time after ARP when neuron can fire but needs strong stimulation
Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine
Monoamines
Neuromodulators
Acetylcholine
contracts skeletal muscles
Monoamines
Indolemines (seretonin)
Catecholimines (dopamine)
Neuromodulators
cause long term change in post synaptic cells
Endocrine System
Hormone System
Major Hormones
Androgens
Estrogen
Follicle
Prolactin
Antidiuretic
Thyroid Gland
Androgen
determine if male
Follicle
stimulating hormone
Electroencephalogram
EEG
Measures brain wave patterns by introducing glucose solution to brain to view activity
Non-REM Sleep
neural synchrony
fleeting thoughts
muscle tension
evening of heartrate and resp
delta waves
Growth hormones secreted
REM Sleep
irregular heartrate, resp and blood flow
Rapid Eye Movement
20% of sleep time
fast, freq. Low beta waves
neural dysynchrony
Dreams
Paradoxical sleep
Psychoanalytic Theory
-Conflict b/w drives is central to human nature
Libido & Ego
Eros & Thanatos

-3 Components of the Mind:
Ego
ID
SuperEgo

-Stage theory of Development:
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
Ego
mediates b/w environment and presures of ID and Superego
ID
Unconcscious biological drives and instincts
Superego
-imposes learned or socialized drives
-Moral and parental learning
Goal of Pychodynamic Therapy
less unconcious pressures by becoming aware of the unconcious as much as possible
Reaction Formation
embracing feelings opposite to your true feelings
Compensation
excel in one area to make up for lacking in another
Sublimation
channeling energy to acceptable outlets
Identification
imitating a central figure
Undoing
performaing ritualistic tasks to relieve anxiety
Adler
Individual Therapy
-People are creative, social and whole
-in the process of "becomming"
-quest for feelings of superiority
Goal of Adler's Individual Therapy
reduce feelings of inferiority and foster social interest and contribution
Adlers Personality Typology
Ruling Dominant Type
Gettng-Learned Type
Avoiding Type
Socially Useful Type
Ruling Dominant Type
Choleric
High activity
Low social cont.
dominant
Gettng-Learned Type
Phlematic
Low Activity
High social cont
dependent
Avoiding Type
Melancholic
Low activity
low social cont.
withdrawn
Socially Useful Type
Sanguine
High activity
High social cont.
healthy
Jung
Analytical Theory
-psyche directed toward life and awareness
-Personal and collective unconcious
-Archetypes
Jung's Archetypes
Persona-Mask
Shadow-dark
Anima-male elements
Animus-female elements
Self-full potential
Goal of Jungian Therapy
psychodynamic
to become more aware of unconcious by exploring through analysis, dreams and symbols
Rogers
Client-Centered Theory
Person centered
humanistic
-optimistic outlook on human nature
-actualizing tendency that can direct them out of conflict and toward their full potential
Goal of Rogers Client-Centered Theory
-to help develop congruance between the real and ideal self
-therapist provides, empathy, unconditional positive regard and genuiness/congruance
Pavlov, Skinner, Wolpe
Behavior Theory
-classical and Operant learning
-change maladaptive behavior through learning
-Short term, directed
-uses counter conditioning techniques to foster new responses
Types of Behavior Therapy
Systematic Desensitization
Flooding
Aversion Therapy
Shaping
Modelling
Assertiveness Training
Role Playing
Beck
Cognitive Theory
-looks at concious thought patterns
-thoughts determine feelings and behavior
-the way a person interprets experience is more important than the experience itself
Types of Maladaptive Cognitions
Arbitrary Inference
Overgeneralization
Magnifying/Minimizing
Personalizing
Dichotomous Thinking
Arbitrary Inference
conclusion w/out evidence
Overgeneralization
taking isolated events as the norm
Ellis
Rational Emotive Therapy
-Elements of cognitive, behavioral and emotion theory
-intertwined thoughts and feelings produce behavior

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