## Glossary of Psy 201 2

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- hypotheses
- specific propositions that follow logically from a theory

- deduction
- process of reasoning from a general proposition to specific implications of that theory

(deriving from existing theory)

- induction
- abstracting a hypothesis from a collection of facts

(collecting info to allow you to form a hypothesis)

- falsifiable
- potential to be found false

- quasi-experimental research
- use when not able to vary the independent variable

study effects of some variable or event that naturally occurs

- identity
- each number has a particular meaning

- magnitude
- numbers have an inherent order from smaller to larger

- true zero
- zero represents a zero level of the variable being measured

- nomaial scales
- lowest level of measurment

least match their number system

naming scales, only property is identity

chi square

categorical data

- ordinal scales
- measure variables in order of magnitude

do not tell anything about difference in categories

ordered data

- interval scales
- properties of ordinal scales + equal intervals b/w consecutive values on scales

come close to matching number system but no true zero

score data

- ratio scale
- properties of identiy, magnitude, and equal intervals + true zero point

score data

- scale attenuation effects
- restricting range of scale

ceiling effect=no room to show change toward higher scores

floor effect= restricted lower range

- chi square
- assess relationship b/w 2 nomial variables

- common causal variables
- cause both predictor and outcome, thus produce correlation b/w them

spurious relationship=produces and 'explains away' relationship b/w predictor and outcome variables

- longitutdal research
- path anaylsis= multiple regression to assess the relationships among number of measured variables