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Glossary of Psy 201 2

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hypotheses
specific propositions that follow logically from a theory
deduction
process of reasoning from a general proposition to specific implications of that theory
(deriving from existing theory)
induction
abstracting a hypothesis from a collection of facts
(collecting info to allow you to form a hypothesis)
falsifiable
potential to be found false
quasi-experimental research
use when not able to vary the independent variable
study effects of some variable or event that naturally occurs
identity
each number has a particular meaning
magnitude
numbers have an inherent order from smaller to larger
true zero
zero represents a zero level of the variable being measured
nomaial scales
lowest level of measurment
least match their number system
naming scales, only property is identity
chi square
categorical data
ordinal scales
measure variables in order of magnitude
do not tell anything about difference in categories
ordered data
interval scales
properties of ordinal scales + equal intervals b/w consecutive values on scales
come close to matching number system but no true zero
score data
ratio scale
properties of identiy, magnitude, and equal intervals + true zero point
score data
scale attenuation effects
restricting range of scale
ceiling effect=no room to show change toward higher scores
floor effect= restricted lower range
chi square
assess relationship b/w 2 nomial variables
common causal variables
cause both predictor and outcome, thus produce correlation b/w them

spurious relationship=produces and 'explains away' relationship b/w predictor and outcome variables
longitutdal research
path anaylsis= multiple regression to assess the relationships among number of measured variables

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