Glossary of Protozoa 2
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- what are the general characteristics of protozoa?
-can reproduce into 8 trophs per cyst in the body.
- what are the 2 main things we're examing in protozoa morphology?
- How is the cytoplasm organized in protozoa?
- -Ectoplasma w/ 5 functions
-Endoplasm w/ 2 functions
- What is the ectoplasma for?
-taking in nutrients
-elimination of waste
- what is the endoplasm for?
- -processing absorbed nutrients by enzymatic bkdwn in vacuoles
- What do we consider when examing Nuclei?
- what are the stages of protozoa?
- what is the funciton of the protozoan cyst?
- Infection - out in environment
-No nutrient uptake
- What is the function of the protozoan trophozoite?
- -Vegetative state
-Moves to nutrients
- What causes Amebiasis?
what are 2 other names for it?
- Entamoeba histolytica
- Where is E. histolytica found?
- Endemic in tropical climates
found in contamin. food/water
- How big is the E. histolytica
- Troph: 10-60u
Cyst: 5-20 u
- What are the characteristics of the E. histolytica troph?
- -lives in large intestine
-half will ingest RBCs
-One nucleus w/ central karyosom
-even arrngd periph chromatin
- what are the characteristics of the e. histolytica cyst?
- -INFECTIOUS STAGE
-Large glycogen vacuole
- What are the hosts of E. histolytica?
sometimes other mammals
- what is the life cycle of e. histolytica?
- 1. cysts ingested w/ feces-contam food/water;
2. excyst in small intestine;
3. trophs colonize LARGE intestine; may invade lg intest lining, ENTERITIS;
4. May invade bld vssls, cause extraintestinal diseases.
5. Pass cysts in feces
- what 2 factors determine the severity of an infection by E. histolytica?
- -Organism virulence - enzymes
-Host factors - intest. tract condition, normal flora, diet, previous problems
- what type of diet will make a host more susceptible to inf?
- high carb
- what are 4 types of infections caused by e. histolytica?
-extra intestinal amebiasis
- what would cause asymptomatic?
- a very small initial inoculum
vague, nonspecific kind've ill feeling
- what are symptoms of acute amebiasis?
- DYSENTARY, abdom pain, fever, dehydration
- what are symptoms of chronic amebiasis?
- similar to acute, but also Constipation, liver tenderness
- What 2 types of extra-int amebiasis develop, and in whom?
- 1. Hepatic - Amebic hepatitis
2. Systemic - in other organs
In immunocompromised, 2-8% of all infected
- what 3 bases is diagnosis of E. histolytica made on?
- 1. Morphological
3. Antigen detection
- What do you want in re: to specimen for e. histolytica?
- 6 stool specimens in a perfect world.
- How is diagnosis made morphologically?
- if Loose stools = Trophs
if Formed stools = Cysts
if Charcot Leyden crystals = chronic infection
- What does serological testing for e. histolytica show?
- Extraintestinal disease - if there's Ab in the serum.
- what is antigen detection for?
- antigens in the stool.
- how is amebiasis treated?
- Metronidazole or Iodoquinol
- How is it prevented?
- Nutritional diet
- what organisms are in phylum ciliata?
- b. coli - balantidium coli
- what diseases does B. coli cause?
- what is the host/s of b. coli?
where is it normally found?
Found in warm climates
- what is the morphology of B. coli?
- it is the largest of the intestinal protozoa;
60x45u = Troph
50-70u = Cyst
- What are the morphologic characteristics of the B. coli trophozoite?
- -Cilia, hazy under the scope.
-Peristome is nutrient intake.
-Cytopate is extretion hole.
-Cytoplasm is very vacuolated and dirty
-Has a macro/micronucleus
- what's special 'bout the nucleus?
- Macronucleus is large and kidney bean shaped, performs all metabolic functions.
Micronuc controls reproduct., may not be visible.
- what symptoms can be seen in balantidiasis?
- -May be asymptomatic
-May be severe dysentary
-May cause intestinal abcesses
- How is B. coli diagnosed?
- by stool samples
- how is balantidiasis treated?
- what are the 5 commensal amoebae?
- a. Entamoeba harmanni
b. Entamoeba coli
c. Endolimax nana
d. Iodamoeba butschlii
e. Entamoeba gingivalis
- how are the commensal amoebae acquired?
- by ingestion, same as pathogens
- what is entamoeba hartmanni similar to? how is it differed?
- Entamoeba histolytica
It's smaller - 4-10u trophs and cysts.
- How predominant is
- E. coli = 10-30% in world
E. nana = 10-20% in world
- what are the characteristics of Entamoeba coli troph?
- -1 nucleus, eccentric karyosome
-Uneven peripheral chromatin
-Blnt psdopod, sluggish motil.
- what are the characteristics of E. coli cyst?
- 15-20u, 1-8 nuclei
-only amoeba w/ >4 nuclei
-splintered chromatidyl bars
- what are the characteristics of Endolimax nana troph?
- -Small - 8-10u troph
-1 nucleus w/ predom. karyosome
- what are the characteristics of e. nana cyst?
- -6-8u, so small
-1-4 nuclei look like RBCs but have big karyosomes
- what does the iodamoeba butschlii troph resemble?
how do you differentiate?
- Identical to e. nana troph; to diffnt, must look for cyst.
- How is the Iodamoeba butschlii cyst different from E. nana?
- I. butschlii has one large glycogen vacuole and v. large karyosome/nucleus.
E. nana has no glycogen and has small 4 nuclei
- What's the only amoeba to ingest WBCs?
-where is it a commensal
-what stage does exist in?
- Entamoeba gingivalis
-commensal in mouth
-only has a troph stage
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