Glossary of Praxis-School Psychology

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ADHD is characterized by:
1. inattention
2. impulsivity
3. overactivity
Approximately what percentage of school age children in the US have ADHD?
Boys are how many times more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than girls
3 times
What are the 3 subtypes of ADHD?
1. ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type
2. ADHD Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
3. ADHD Combined Type
What is ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type?
individuals who exhibit problems only with inattention and concentration
What is ADHD Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type?
individuals who exhibit problems only with hyperactivity and impulsivity
What is ADHD Combined Type?
individuals who exhibit problems in both ares of inattention and concentration and hyperactivity and impulsivity
What percentage of children with ADHD also have learning disabilities?
Students with ADHD frequently (3 problems):
1. do not achieve their academic potential
2. may be at higher than average risk for grade retention and school drop out
3. are less likely to pursue postsecondary education
Approximately what percentage of individuals with ADHD exhibit significant symptoms of other disruptive behavior disorders including oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD).
The two most effective interventions for reducing the symptomatic behaviors of ADHD are:
1. central nervous system (CNS) stimulant medications
2. behavior modification procedures
What intervention leads to the greatest improvement in chidren with ADHD's social skills and school performance?
the combined use of medication and behavioral interventions
Behavioral interventions for students with ADHD (5):
1. behavioral contracts (e.g., earning privileges for appropriate school behavior) (when they are used consistently in both the home and the school settings)
2. self-monitoring and self-evaluation strategies
3. Schoolwide positive behavior support plans
4. academic interventions (e.g., direct instruction in areas of deficit)
5. training in note taking, study skills, and test-taking strategies.
What part of the law provides accomodations for students with ADHD?
Section 504 plans
Current best practice in evaluating students for ADHD requires (3):
the use of multiple assessment methods and sources of information that include
1. diagnostic interviews with parents, teachers, and students
2. behavior rating scales that are completed by parents and teachers
3. data (e.g., report card grades and test scores) that indicate whether a student is impaired by ADHD symptoms
threat assessment
which uses a set of strategies or pathways to determine the credibility and seriousness of a threat and the likelihood that it will be carried out
Secret Service and FBI findings about the factors that lead to school violence include (11):
1. School violence is not an epidemic
2. All school shooters are not alike and there is no accurate profile of the violent offender
3. School shooters often have social difficulties, but they are not always loners
4. Although a common factor, revenge is not the exclusive motivation for school shootings
5. Most attackers had previously used guns and had access to them, but access to weapons is not the most significant risk factor
6. Unusual or aberrant behaviors or interests are not the hallmark of a student destined to become violent
7. Incidents of targeted violence at school are rarely impulsive
8. Prior to most incidents, the attacker told someone about his/her idea or plans
Most shooting incidents were not resolved by law enforcement
9. In many cases, other students were involved in some capacity
10. In a number of cases, bullying played a key role in and could have been a predictor of the attack
11. Prior to the incident, most attackers engaged in behavior that caused concern
Direct threat
identifies a specific act against a specific target delivered in a straightforward, clear, and explicit manner
Indirect threat
tends to be vague, unclear and ambiguous. Violence is implied, but threat is phrased tentatively, and suggests that a violent act could occur, not that it will occur.
Veiled threat
is one that strongly implies but does not explicitly threaten violence.
Conditional threat
is often seen in extortion cases. It warns that a violent act will happen unless certain demands or terms are met
Low Level of Threat
Poses a minimal risk to the victim and public safety
Is vague and indirect
Information is inconsistent, implausible or lacks detail
Lacks realism
Content suggests person is unlikely to carry out the threat
Medium Level of Threat
Could be carried out, although it may not appear entirely realistic
More direct and more concrete than a low level threat
Wording suggests the individual has given some thought to how the act will be carried out
Includes a general indication of place and time but signs still fall well short of a detailed plan
No strong indication that the individual has taken preparatory steps
Statements seek to convey that the threat is not empty: "I'm serious!" or "I really mean this!"
High Level of Threat
Direct, specific, and plausible
Appears to pose imminent and serious danger to safety of others
Suggests concrete steps have been taken, i.e., stalking or acquisition of a weapon
Almost always requires bringing in law enforcement
Four-Pronged Threat Assessment Model that examines:
1. Personality of the Student
2. School Dynamics
3. Social Dynamics
4. Family Dynamics
Neurotransmiters involved
Dopamine & Norepinephrine

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