Glossary of Posterior Triangle 2
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- What is the anterior border of the PM? What is the posterior border of the PM? What is the inferior border of the PM?
- The posterior part of the SCM
The anterior part of the trapezius muscle
The middle 1/3 of the clavicle
- What is found in the occipital triangle?
- The accessory nerve, part of the jugular vein, posterior branches of cervical plexus of nerves, trunks of brachial plexus, transverse cervical artery, and cervical lymph nodes.
- What is the origin and the insertion of the omohyoid muslce. Which portion serves as a boundary for both the occipital and supraclavicular muscles?
- Origin: superior part of scapula
Insertion: inferior border of the body of the hyoid
The inferior belly serves as the boundary
- What are the boundaries for the occipital triangle?
- The trapezius muscle, the SCM and the inferior belly of the omohyoid muslce.
- Which muslces are found in the occipital trianlge?
- The splenius capitis, the levator scapula and the scalene muscles (anterior, middle, posterior)
- What are the borders of the subclavian triangle?
- The middle 1/3 of the clavicle, the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle, and the posterior portion of the SCM.
- What are the contents of the subclavian triangle?
- Subclavian lymph nodes, subclavian artery and part of the sublclavian vein.
- What does the accessory nerve innervate? In which posterior triangle is it found?
- The accessory nerve innervates the SCM and the trapezius muscle. It is found in the occipital triangle.
- What is the path of the brachial plexus?
- It descends through the posterior triangle, passes between the first rib and the clavicle and ends in the axilla (armpit).
- The cervical plexus innervates the skin of the neck. What are the four main branches?
- 1) Lesser occipital nerve
2) Greater auricular nerve
3) Transverse cervical nerve
4) Supraclavicular nerve(medial, intermediate and lateral)
- What does the occipital nerve innervate and which cervical nerves contribute to this nerve.
- Cranial Nerves II and III.
It closely follows the posterior border of the SCM as it ascends towards the mastiod process. Near the insertion of this muscle, the lesser occipital nerve perforates the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia, crosses over the SCM, and distrubutes to the back of the auricle and to the region of the scalp behind and superior to it.
- What does the greater auricular nerve innervate andd which nerves contribute to this nerve?
- C2 and C3
It pierces the investing layer of the deep cervical fasica at the midbelly of the SCM. It travels obliquely across that muscle, accompanying the external jugular vein in its ascent towards the ear. Shortly before reaching the ear, it bifurcates into an anterior branch supplying sensation to the skin overlying the parotid gland and a posterior branch (or mastoid branch) serving the cuaneous region over the back of the ear and mastoid process.
- What does the transverse cervical nerve innervate? Which nerves contribute to this nerve?
It pierces the investing layer of the deep fascia in the vicinity of, but inferior to, the great auricular nerve. It crosses the SCM horizontally under the cover of the platysma, deep to the external jugular vein, where it bifurcates into ascending and descending branches to supply the skin of teh anterior triangle of the neck.
- What does the supraclavicular nerve innervate? Which nerves contribute to this nerve?
The only superficial descending branches of the cervical plexus. These nerves pass deep to the investing layer of the deep cervical plexus. The trunk descends deep to the platysma and forms three branches: medial, intermediate, and lateral. these branches perforate the investing layer just cranial to the clavicle and distrubute as far inferiorly as the sternal angle and second rib and as far laterlly and posterior as the skin over the spin of the capula. Occasionally, one ore more of these nerves may be observed to perforate the clavicle.
Medial - manubrium
Intermediate - 2nd rib
Lateral - supplies shoulder area (deltoid)
- Initially, which nerve does the ansa cervicalis travel with? What are the four branches of the ansa cervicalis?
- The hypoglossal nerve
3) both bellies of the omohyoid muscles
Two branches continue along with the hypoglossal nere and innervate the thyrohyoid and geniohyoid muscles.
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