Glossary of Poochie Back Muscles
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- How do most back muscles recieve their blood?
- the dorsal branches of the aorta, the primary artery of the body
- Spinal nerve
- anterior and posterior branches of the spinal cord come together and form the spinal nerve, they run throught the vertebral foramen
- The spinal nerve bifurcates into...
- larger ventral branch, smaller dorsal branch (ventral and dorsal rami)they carry sensory and motor nerve fibers. Dorsal rami do not innervate superficial muscles of the back.
- What innervates the upper half of the skin?
- medial dorsal rami
- What innervates the lower half of the skin?
- lateral branches of the dorsal rami
- superficial muscles
- muscles that connect the upper limgs to the trunk muscles innervated by nerves not from the dorsal primary rami (Latissmus dorsi, Levator scapulae, rhomboids, and serratus muscle innervated by ventral rami--excluding the trapezius)
- native (deep) back muscles
- innervated by dorsal primary rami, develop in the back and stay there during development
- attaches at the external occipitial protuberance or inion and runs along to T12 (laterally attaches to the spine of the scapula, anteriorally attaches to the clavicle)Innervated by cranial nerve 11 "hook of monk"
- What do the upper fibers of the trapezius do?
- run obliquely from the superior to the inferior, they elevate and retract the scapula
- What do the inferior fibers of the trapezius do?
- run obliquely from the midpoint laterally to pull the scapula down
- horizontal fibers
- retracts the scapula bilaterally
- Where does the trapezius recieve blood from?
- half of us from the superficial branch of the transverse cervical artery, the other half directly from the transverse cervical artery
- Latissimus dorsi
- big muscle on the back. Attached in the mid thoracic region and then down the midline of the vertebrae below to the sacrus across from the iliac crest; fibers converge and end on the humerous
- what innervates the latissimus dorsi?
- the ventral rami--a branch of the brachial plexus called the thoracodorsal nerve
- where does the blood supply to the latissimus dorsi come from?
- a branch of the axillary artery, which is a continuation of the subclavian artery distal to the first rib
- once the trapezius is removed, the rhomboids appear (major and minor) It attaches at the medial border of the scapula and at the midline spine and upper thoracic and lower cervical regoion to the nunchal ligament and the spinous processes
- How do the rhomboids move the scapula?
- the same way as the trapezius
- What innervates the rhomboids?
- dorsal scapular nerve from the ventral rami and brachial plexus
- Serratus Posterior Muscles
- Thin and attach to the lower and upper four ribs; they are proprioceptive, not motor
- nunchal ligament
- starts at C7 and ends at the exterior occipital protuberance.
- What anchors to the superspinous ligament?
- Latissimus dorsi and the trabizus
- flattened tendon from the latissimus dorsi (lumbodorsal fascia)
- Triangle of auscultation
- listening to something, easy to listen here b/c of a deficit of muscle tissue. Bound by the latissimus dorsi, the trapezius, the medial edge of the scpula and the inferior edge of the rhomboid major
- Triangle of petit
- bound by the latissimus dorsi, the iliac crest, and external abdominal oblique
- deep muscles
- splenius capitus, semispinalis, erector spinae group (3), transversospinalis group
- splenius capitus
- fibers run medial from the cervical spine and down laterally from the upper thoracic spine--attach to the mastoid process and the superior nunchal line; help extend the neck, innervated by dorsal rami
- deep in the splenius capitus, first of the transversospinalis group, arise from the transverse process and attach to the base of the bone at the occipital bone(superior nuchal line)
- erector spinae group (sarcospinalis group)
- run in longitudinal columns from medial to lateral, cover most of the posterior throax and lumbar region, innervated by dorsal rami
- what does the erector spinae group do?
- contracts to extend the spine and helps let the spine down easy
- what are the three groups of erector spinae?
- medial: spinaus
- transversospinalis group
- help hold spine together and have proprioceptive fibers; deep to erector spinae group
- Three types of transversopinalis muscles
- Roator muscles (will not skip more than one segment of the spinous processes)
Multifidus-skips three to five segements of spinous processes
Semispinalis-skips five to seven segments
- Feedback muscles
- Suboccipital muscles that anchor C1 and C2 together with occipital bone
- Splenius muscles (capitis and cervicis)
- thick and flat and lie on the lateral and posterior aspects of the neck, like a bandage, arrise from nuchal ligament and spinous processes(C7-T3 or T4)
- Insertion of slenius capitis
- fibers run superolaterally to the mastoid process of the temporal bone and the lateral third of the superior nuchal line of occipital bone.
- insertion of splenius cervicis
- in the transverse processes of C1-C3 or C4
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