Glossary of Political Science Review
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- A national policy of abstaining from political or economic relations with other countries.
- the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)
- Carter Doctrine
- The Carter Doctrine was a policy proclaimed by President of the United States Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980, which stated that the United States would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian Gulf region.
- Truman Doctrine
- The Truman Doctrine was a United States foreign policy designed to contain Communism - The start of the cold war
- the right to guaranteed benefits under a government program, as Social Security or unemployment compensation.
- The taking over of private property by a government - eminent domain
- counter-majoritarian difficulty
- The counter-majoritarian difficulty states a problem with the legitimacy of the institution of judicial review: when unelected judges use the power of judicial review to nullify the actions of elected executives or legislators, they act contrary to “majority will” as expressed by representative institutions.
- recess appointments
- occurs when the President of the United States fills a vacant Federal position during a recess of the United States Senate. The commission or appointment must be approved by the Senate by the end of the next session, or the position becomes vacant again.
- the peoples' acceptance of a law
- Of or for the people in general
- separation of powers
- the principle or system of vesting in separate branches the executive, legislative, and judicial powers of a government.
- A system of government in which power is divided between a nat'l gov't & regional gov't.This arrangement not only allows state governments to respond directly to the interests of their local populations, but also serves to check the power of the federal government.
- selective incorporation
- The US Sup Court's gradual & piecmeal making of the protections of the Bill of Rights binding on the states.
- in kinds benefits
- Benefits in kind are benefits, which are received from an employer that cannot be converted into money but which nevertheless confer a benefit on an employee
- penumbral right
- Penumbral rights are rights that the Constitution does not specifically mention, but may be implied by the rights that are enumerated.
- Marbury v Madison (1803)judicial review/penumbral rights/
- Though the Supreme Court's power to determine the constitutionality of the laws of the land was never explicitly granted in the Constitution, the Court has exercised the power of judicial review ever since the extremely controversial case of Marbury v. Madison in 1803. Inherent in the power of judicial review is the definition of penumbral rights.
- Justification of Electorial College?
- Can not be justified - it remains out of respect for our Nation's History & the Founding Fathers.
- States, People, Government
- Art. 1 Sec 9
Art. 1 Sec 10
- sec 9-restrctns on congress
sec 10- restrctns on states
- Judicial Federalism
- Interpretation of the govt by the sup court
- Prior Restraint
- Govt involvment to prohibit publication - against newspapers, book banning, speakers.
- Public Interest Groups
- Protect Public-do not charge for services. ex:MADD,American Civil Liberties, NRA
- Private Interst Groups
- Protects special groups of people. EX: NAR, Proffessional associations
- the study of interest groups
- free rider
- one who gains a benefit without contributing
- soft money
- unregulated money used in campaigns
- hard money
- regulated money used in campaigns
- Political action commitees
- interest groups coming together to support a particular party
- Iron triangle
- an alliance of common interest among an interest group, a congressional committee & a bureaucratic agency
- lad's theory
- dealignment in political parties -
realignment in political parties -
creates new party
- a gradual reduction in the dominance of 1 political party without another party supplanting it.
- large shift from 1 party to another
- electoral college
- *indirect mechanism that is used to determine the winner of a presidential election.
- retrospective voting
- a form of election in which voters look back atthe performance of a party in power and cast ballots on the basis of how well it did in office.
- prospective voting model
- voters decide by looking in the future plans & ideas of a responsible party
- redraw district lines to give an advantage to a particular party or candidate - often used to support minority groups
- expansion of the franchise
- voting eligibility requirements expanded
franchise (the right to vote)
- *elected every 6 yrs - no term limit
*1/3 elected in Nov of even years
*2 per state
*advise & consent for judicial & upper level executive branch appoinments
* can serve on impeachment proceedings
* can advise & consent for treaties
- House of Representatives
- * elected every 2 yrs-no term limit
* Elected in Nov of even year
* # depends on size of State
* Originates revenue bills
* Bring impeachment charges
- * elected every 4 years-can only serve 2 terms.
* budget for presidency has increased to support the entire executive branch of govt. (@1/3 of govt is exec brach)
*Powers- head of exec branch
can make a treaty w/foreign country
*Inaugral address will contain foreign policy
*check & balances apply with domestic policy
- Term limits
- States can establish limits for State representatives & senators (no term limits on US sen & House)
- Bill becomes a law
- 1. Bill proposed by Representative or Senator
2. Bill given a number which will indicate where it came from (H-house,S-senate)
3. Bill presented to commitee & subcommitees
4. Voted on by congress - if majority vote than it goes to President
*if pres takes no action -billbecomes law after 10 days
* if veto -can still be law if 2/3 vote from House
- Congressional Committees
- address specific areas of legislation
- office of independent counsil
- set up to prevent conflict of interest.
- Homeland security
- created by president Bush after 9-11 (normally Congess creates Agencys)
- Supremacy Clause
- Art. 6 - Supports judicial review- States the US Constitution is the supreme law taking precedence over state law.
- Test Case
- a case brought to force a ruling on the constitutionality of some law
- counter majoritarian difficulty
- judges use the power of judicial review to nullify actions of elected officials
- Congressional Review
- Congress can nullify an exec. branch regulation within 60 days that regulation was accepted by President.
- Civil Rights
- The acts Govt. takes to protect individuals against discriminatory treatment based on sex, race, national orgin, age or sexual orientation.
- "to be informed"
a formal request from the Supreme Court to review a decision about an issue from a lower court to determine if it will be heard on appeal.
- Habeas Corpus
- A court order that requires the govt. to release a person held in custody or demonstrate that the person is detained in accordance with the law.
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