Glossary of Pioneers of Science

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Cells in cork; named cells
Disproved spontaneous generation {maggots and meat}
Dug up bodies to learn about organs. Discovered circulatory system
First to classify plants and animals; philosopher
Discovered that germs cause disease; disproved spontaneous generation
Described a type of simple animal behavior known as classical conditioning
Discovered that all cells arise from other living cells
First person to sterilize instruments for surgery
Discovered that plants are made of cells
Discovered that animals are made of cells
First person to view blood cells under microscope
James Watson and Francis Crick
Discovered the “double helix” structure of DNA
Rosalind Franklin
Was instrumental in discovering the structure of DNA; received little credit
Father of hereditary; studied genetics with pea plants; monk
Jonas Salk
Polio Vaccine
Alexander Fleming
Discovered penicillin
Edward Jenner
Found small pox vaccine
Alfred Wallace
Proposed theory of natural selection around same time as Darwin but received very little credit
Mary and Louis Leaky
Found fossil of a 4 million year old “human-like” organism {Australopithecus}
Charles Darwin
Went down in history as founder of the law of natural selection
Miller and Urey
Performed an experiment in which organic matter {amino acids, etc} was generated from inorganic matter
Konrad Lorenz
Studied genetic basis of behavior by observing imprinting in geese
Charles Drew
Developed a method for typing and storing blood; started first blood bank
Rachel Carson
Book “Silent Spring” in which she explained the affect of pesticides {mainly DDT} on the ecosystem
Jane Goodall
Studied the behavior of chimpanzees in the wild
Came up with system for classifying and naming organisms; still used today

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