Glossary of Physiology of Psychology

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When sounds waves enter the ear what series of events takes place in order for the information to reach the brain?
Sound waves move tympanic membrane, tympanic membrane moves the oval window of the cochlea, movmemnt of the cochlea moves fluid which depolarizes and hyperpolarizes hair cells on the basilar membrane, signal is sent along the cochlear nerve (or auditory nerve)which then projects to the medulla.
What does the release of Oxytocin at orgasm effect?
•contraction of milk ducts
•uterine contractions
•feelings of well-being and pleasure
•maternal behavior
How is the location of the sound on the basilar membrane significant?
each area maps onto a specific location back in the auditory cortex where it is coded by pitch. So where the hair cells stimulated corresponds with specific locations in primary auditory cortex
What does the release of Prolactin at orgasm effect?
•milk production
•male refractory period
•maternal & paternal behavior
What detects pheromones?
The vomeronasal organ and standard olfactory system. Both of these send info to the medial area of the amygdala.
What two hormones are released from the pituitary at orgasm?
Oxytocin (post. Pituitary). Prolactin (ant.pituitary).
Where do the offshoots of the audition pathway go?
cerebellum and reticular formation
What do brains scans in humans while a person is orgasming reveal?
•Increased activation in several areas and in particular the VTA (ventral tegmental area)VTA impacts reward and reinforcement mechanisms such as release of dopamine.
•Also the PAG in females.
•Decreases activity in the amygdala.
What research did Ekmann do on emotions?
At least 6 innate, primary emotional responses (born within us)
Does damage to amygdala impair recognition of emotion?
What does damage to the face region of the primary motor cortex cause?
Volitional facial paresis, a condition where people cannot deliberately make facial expressions, it has to happen spontaneously as a reaction to situation which warrants it.
In terms of the degree of risk in a fight, low ranking individuals tend to pick… ?
riskier fights, ones they can’t win. = impulsivity, this behavior is correlated with stress hormone levels.
What is emotional facial paresis?
Cannot show a strong emotion when they are in a real situation, difficulty producing a genuine emotional expression. No problem creating the muscles on purpose.
In a bad situation or confrontation with a competitor, what is the typical response?
Display behaviors
What is the Duchenne smile?
A “genuine” smile as indicated by whether or not the muscles around our eyes are contracted. Muscles around our eyes that we can’t voluntarily contract DO contract when we make a genuine smile.

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