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Glossary of Physiology and Anatomy

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1.
Anything that occupies space and has mass is called

A. an element.
B. matter.
C. an atom.
D. a compound.
B. matter.
2.
A pure substance that is composed of only one of more than a hundred types of atoms is called a(n)

A. atom.
B. element.
C. compound.
D. isotope.
B. element.
3.
A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between the outer shells of two atoms is called a(n)

A. ionic bond.
B. hydrogen bond.
C. covalent bond.
D. none of these are correct.
C. covalent bond.
4.
Molecules that form ions when dissolved in water are called

A. isomers.
B. isotopes.
C. electrolytes.
D. chemical bonds.
C. electrolytes.
5.
Acids

A. release hydrogen ions.
B. have a pH above 7.
C. take up hydroxyl ions.
D. both a and b.
A. release hydrogen ions.
6.
As the concentration of hydrogen ions increases, the pH goes

A. down and the solution becomes more acidic.
B. down and the solution becomes more alkaline.
C. up and the solution becomes more acidic.
D. up and the solut
A. down and the solution becomes more acidic.
7.
Buffers

A. increase the acidity of a solution.
B. increase the alkalinity of a solution.
C. maintain pH balance.
D. increase glucose levels in the blood.
C. maintain pH balance.
8.
The carbon-containing molecules formed by living things are often called

A. organic molecules.
B. inorganic molecules.
C. buffers.
D. salts.
A. organic molecules.
9.
Each enzyme "fits" the specific molecule it works on. This explanation is often referred to as the

A. lock and key model.
B. fluid mosaic model.
C. enzyme/catalyst model.
D. enzyme lock model.
A. lock and key model.
10.
The most important monosaccharide is

A. fructose.
B. lactose.
C. glucose.
D. maltose.
C. glucose.
11.
An example of a polysaccharide is

A. glucose.
B. glycogen.
C. steroid.
D. nucleotide.
B. glycogen.
12.
Proteins are large molecules composed of

A. glucose.
B. fats.
C. nucleotides.
D. amino acids.
D. amino acids.
13.
Which of these is not a lipid?

A. fat
B. steroid
C. cholesterol
D. polysaccharide
D. amino acids.
A very large molecule composed of subunits of sugar, nitrogen base, and a phosphate bond is a

A. protein.
B. lipid.
C. carbohydrate.
D. nucleic acid.
D. nucleic acid.
15.
DNA and RNA are important because

A. they are the "master code" of life.
B. they conserve energy.
C. each one is a valuable source of energy.
D. they serve as catalysts.
A. they are the "master code" of life.

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