Glossary of Physiology (Chpt 12, Body Defenses) FINAL
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- What is immunity?
- The body's ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign materials or abnormal cells (does not have to be foreign)
- 3 key functions of immune system?
- 1. defense against invading pathogens (bacteria, viruses, etc)
2. removes "worn-out" cells
3. identifies and destroys abnormal or mutant cells
- An inappropriate immune response leads to what?
- allergies or an autoimmune response
- What are leukocytes?
- Why are white blood cells white under a microscope?
- because they lack hemoglobin
- Size of a WBC verses a RBC?
- WBC is slightly larger
- Leukocytes (WBC) could be said to be the ? units of the body's immune system?
- mobile units
- 3 functions of leukocytes?
- 1. defend against invasion by pathogens
2. identify and destroy cancer cells
3. function as "clean up crew", by phagocytizing debris of dead or injured cells
- WBCs can leave circulation and go where?
- to sites of invasion and tissue damage
- How many kinds of leukocytes are there?
- Name the two broad categories of leukocytes?
- 1. polymorphonuclear granulocytes
2. mononuclear agranulocytes
- Describe general features of polymorphonuclear granulocytes?
- - literally means "many-shaped nucleus, granule-containing"
- nucleii segmented into lobes, with abundant membrane enclosed granules in cytoplasm
- Describe general features of mononuclear agranulocytes?
- - literally means "single-nucleus, lacking granules"
- actually has granule, just fewer than polymorphonuclear granulocytes
- single, large, nonsegmented nucleus and few granules
- Name the three different polymorphonuclear granulocytes and how you would distinguish each of them under a microscope?
- 1. neutrophils : granules attract neutral dye
2. eosinophils : granules attract red dye
3. basophils : granules attract blue dye
- Name the two different mononuclear agranulocytes?
- 1. monocytes (larger)
2. lymphocytes (smallest leukocytes)
- Describe the rate of production for leukocytes?
- varies, depending on defense needs of body
- Where are leukocytes produced?
- from pluripotent cells in the bone marrow
- Granulocytes and monocytes are only produced where?
- in bone marrow
- Where are lymphocytes produced?
- originally in the bone marrow from precursor cells...then most new ones are produced from lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue
- In the bone marrow undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells go on to become what two things?
- 1. myeloid stem cells
2. lymphoid stem cells
- What do myeloid stem cells become? (4 possibilities)Where does this occur?
- 1. megakaryocytes
2. erythrocyte precursors
3. granulocyte precursors
4. monocyte precursors
(all occurs in the bone marrow)
- What do lymphoid stem cells become? Where does this occur?
- they become lymphocytes
(the lymphocytes are in lymphoid tissue or in circulation)
- What are megakaryocytes precursors for?
- What are the least numerous cellular elements in the body?
- Normally approximately 2/3s of the leukocytes in the body are what?
- The percentage of what can change depending on the defense needs of the body?
- percentage of each WBC
- What in general signals the changes in the percentage of WBCs needed by the body?
- various hormones
- Name the 5 leukocytes?
- 1. neutrophils
- Far and away the highest percentage of leukocytes in the body are what?
- neutrophils (60-70%)
- Function of neutrophils?
-first on scene during bacterial invasion
-important during inflammation
- Function of eosinophils?
- -increase (eosinophilia) associated with allergic conditions and parasitic infections
-so normally to rid parasitic infections but also causes allergic conditions
- Function of basophils?
- -similar to mast cells
- roles poorly understood
-synthesize and store histamine and heparin (but real function not entirely clear)
- Function of monocytes?
- when circulating they are phagocytes
-develop into macrophages in tissues
- What are the main functions of the lymphocytes?
- immune defense against specific targets
- The two types of lymphocytes?
- 1. B lymphocytes
2. T lymphocytes
- What do the B lymphocytes do?
- produce antibodies which mark and destroy foreign matter
- What do the T lymphocytes do?
- carry out cell-mediated immune response, releasing chemicals that destroy target cells
- Name the 8 lymphoid tissues?
- 1. bone marrow
2. lymph nodes
7. peyer's patches (digestive tract)
- The origin of all blood cells is where?
- in the bone marrow
- The spleen also removes worn out what?
- blood cells
- What is the thymus necessary for the maturation of?
- T cells
- What does the thymus secrete to mature T cells?
- The thymus is absolutely essential for appropriate what?
- immune response
- Immune responses can be innate and ? or adaptive and ?.
- innate and nonspecific....adaptive and specific
- In general how do innate and nonspecific immune responses differ from adaptive and specific immune responses?
- differ in timing and selectivity of defense mechanism
- 4 aspects of innate immunity?
- 1. immediate response upon exposure to threat
2. nonselective defense against foreign invaders
3. first line of defense: Rapid, but limited
4. Neutrophils, Macrophages, and Plasma Proteins
- 2 aspects of adaptive (acquired) immunity?
- 1. targets are specific: foreign matter to which the body already exposed
2. body is prepared, but takes time to respond
- In adaptive immunity what is the difference between the first time you are exposed to foreign matter to subsequent times?
- the first time the response takes longer then subsequent times
- The adaptive immune response includes what two types of immunity?
- 1. antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity
2. cell-mediated immunity
- Describe antibody-mediated immunity?
- - Abs produced by B cell derivatives, the plasma cells (turn out lots of Ab)
-generally recognize freely existing foreign-invaders (such as bacteria, some viruses)
- Describe cell-mediated immunity?
- -production of activated T-cells, which attack undesirable cells
-(generally recognize body cells gone awry, such as viral infected cells, cancer cells, etc)
- B and T cells recognize and selectively respond to what?
- foreign agents and cancer cells
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