Glossary of Physiological Psychology
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- Transference of impulses within the nervous system?
- resting potential
- a. polarized
- action potential
- The class of neurotransmitters that includes epinephrine, norephinephrine, and dopamine:
- The venom of the black widow spider has an opposite effect of the poison botulin. It causes an excessive flow of the neurotransmitter _____ into the neuromuscular system, resulting in uncontrollable muscle contractions.
- Tom eats a very large meal. The _____ branch of the ANS works to aid digestion by activating his digestive system and decreasing his heart rate and the blood flow to his skeletal muscles.
- Of all the sensory modalities, only ____ does not have a thalamic relay.
- The psychological sensation is an exponential function of stimulus intensity - what law is this?
- Stevens' Power Law
- The just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the initial stimulus intensity - law?
- A. Weber's Law
- The physical stimulus changes are logarithmically related to psychological sensation - law?
- Fechner's Law
- The inability of humans to perceive a "reddish green" color is predicted by the _______ theory of color vision.
- Perception of tones above 4,000 Hz is best explained by the _____ theory of pitch perception.
- The _____ mediate color and daytime vision.
- Lesions to which of the following areas ordinarily produce a reduction in aggressive behaviors:
- a. amygdala
- According to Selye, the "general adaptation syndrome" involves three stages. These are:
- alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
- According to the _____ theory of emotions, physiological arousal does not cause emotions but instead occurs simultaneously with the subjective experience of emotions.
- If Tom heard a gunshot in his backyard during his mean, the ______ branch of his ANS would have prepared him for a "flight or fight" response" by causing an increase in his heart rate and sweat gland activity and by inactivating his digest
- Damage to the dorsal (top/back) horns of the spinal cord is most likely to produce deficits in ____ (motor,sensory) functioning.
- Amphetamines, antidepressant drugs, and electroconsvulsive shock tend to reduce the amount of time spent in REM sleep. This is probably because these treatments increase the production or release of:
- c. norepinephrine
- The presence or absence of sexual arousal during -___ sleep is sometimes used to evaluate the etiology of male impotence. If the impotence is due to physiological causes, erections will not occur, but if it is due to psychological factors, erections duri
- sympathetic arousal and myclonic twitches (muscle jerks) occur in this stage:
- REM sleep
- Slow-wave sleep:
- non-REM sleep
- EEG pattern similar to that of alert wakefulness:
- REM sleep
- Narcolepsy associated with this stage:
- REM sleep
- Sleepwalking associated with this stage:
- Stage 4 sleep
- In a study examining the similarities and differences between obese humans and VMH lesioned rats, Schachter found that obese people were ____ likely to eat Chinese food with chopsticks than normal-weight people and ___ likely to drink milkshakes adultera
- ______ to the LHA produces aphagia and adipsia (lesions or elec stimulation)
- A rat exhibits a dramatic increase in food intake and extreme obseity. These symptoms characterize:
- In humans, the "adrenogenital syndrome" causes the fetus' adrenal glands to secrete high than normal levels of androgen. If the fetus is a genetic female, this will most likely result in which of the following:
a. masculinized external gen
- masculinized external genitalia
- According to Masters and Johnson, the human sexual response cycle involves four stages. These are:
- excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
- True/False: Masters and Johnson estimated that approx 50% of all American couples experience some form of sexual dysfunction.
- ______, which involves retrograde and anterograde amnesia, is believed to be due to a vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency.
- Korsakoff's Syndrome
- _____ amnesia involves a loss of memory for past events but does not affect memory for new events.
- Memory loss would be most likely to result from damage to the:
b. basal ganglia
- Bob drinks six beers and, as a result, urinates more frequently than usual. This is because the alcohol depresses the production of _____ which is secreted by the ______ gland.
- ADH (antidiuretic hormone); pitutary
- Hyposection of this hormone produces _____, which involves excessive water loss
- diabetes insipidus
- Jane is diagnosed as having hyperthyroidism, which is produced by hypersecretion of the hormone ____. She is probably exhibiting (list at least three symptoms):
- thyroxin; inc metabolism, inc body temp, inc appetite, weight loss, confusion, nervous fatigue
- _____ is diagnosed when high blood pressure is not due to a known physiological cause. High risk for this disorder is associated with (list at lest three factors)
- Essential hypertension
diabetes, smoking, excessive use of Nacl and increased stress, family hx, and black race
- True/False: Research has clearly demonstrated that PMS is associated with decrements in cognitive performance
- initiative vs. guilt
- 3-6 years
- identity vs. role confusion
- generativity vs. stagnation
- middle adulthood
- integrity vs. despair
- late adulthood
- autonomy vs. shame
- 12-36 months
- intimacy vs. isolation
- early adulthood
- trust vs. mistrust
- 1-12 months
- industry vs. inferiority
- 6-12 years
- From a Freudian perspective, obsessive-compulsive disorder is due to fixation at the ___ stage of development.
- For Kohlberg, gender _____ must precede gender constancy.
- Genrally speaking, teachers are most likely to attribute a girl's success to ____, but a boy's success to ____.
- effort; ability
- According to Kubler-Ross, a person facing his/her death will experience the following five stages:
- denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance
- A shift in perspective from time since birth to time left to die typically occurs between the ages of
- 40 and 45
- A 7 year old boy is moody, easily annoyed, hostile, and low in achievement orientation. Based on this info, youwould guess that his parents are
- Popular children:
a. have a high level of self-esteem
b. are physically attractive
c. are average in intelligence
- b. are physically attractive
- A sense of wellbeing in later life is most related to:
a. number of close friends
b. accessibility of social suport
c. subjective perception of social support
- c. subjective perception of social support
- 10. Gender-role reversal is most likely to occur at age:
- A parent would be most concerned if his:
a. 2 1/2 yo has temper tantrums
b. 3yo stutters when she is excited
c. 4yo has intense fear reactions to strangers
- c. 4yo has intense fear reactions to strangers
- When using biofeedback to help a hhpervigilant, anxious client relax, which of the following aspects of the nervous system is being targeted:
- b. parasympathetic
- In recent years, the dopamine hypothesis has been modified because the research has found that
a. paranoid schizophrenia is associated with higher than normal levels of norepinephrine
b. disorganized schizophrenia is associated with lower than
- a. paranoid schizophrenia is associated with higher than normal levels of norepinephrine
- Which of the following is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms?
b. basal ganglia
- d. hypothalamus
- Excitement, fear, and rage are believed to be mediated by the
- b. hypothalamus
- Imparied facial recognition, difficulty recognizing familiar objects by touch, and an inability to perform complex, purposeful movements (apraxia) are most suggestive of damage to the
a. parietal lobes
b. frontal lobes
c. temporal lobes
- a. parietal lobes
- Damage to the right hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is most likely to result in:
a. anxiety and depression
b. indifference or undue cheerfulness
d. increased aggression
- b. indifference or undue cheerfulness
- A person can say "knife" when a picture of a knife is flashed to his right visual field, but he cannot name a spoon, which he can't see but has felt with his left hand. Most likely, this individual has damage to which of the following:
- b. corpus callosum - split-brain
- Damage to the temporal lobe is most likely to cause:
a. Gerstmann's syndrome
b. memory loss
d. visual agnosia
- b. memory loss - also temporal lobes are assoc with auditory mediation
- The sex hormone testosterone:
a. increases sex drive in males only
b. increases sex drive in males and females
c. increases sex drive in males but dec sex drive in females
- b. increases sex drive in males and females
- According to the James-Lange theory:
a. I tremble because I'm scared
b. I'm scared because I tremble
c. It's midnight so I must be tired
d. I'm tired so it must be midnight
- b. I'm scared because I tremble - the theory is a peripheralist theory of emotion that states that the psychological experience of emotion follows bodily reactions to an external stimulus
- A psychologist interested in psychophysiology is designing a research study. Most likely, her dependent variable will be:
a. the just noticeable difference
b. skin temperature
c. a measure of eye-hand coordination
d. peripheral vision
- b. skin temperature - a psychophysiologist studies mental and behavioral phenomena by measuring involuntary physiolgical reactions... if you picked response a, you're confusing psychophysiology with psychophysics, which is the study of sensation
- Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by:
a. nonfluent output, disturbed repetition, and abnormal comprehansion
b. fluent output, impaired repetition, and intact comprehension
c. nonfluent output, impaired repetition, and intact comprehensio
- d. fluent output, impaired repetition, and poor comprehension
- _____ is characterized by nonfluent output and intact comprehension
- Broca's aphasia
- A patient who has experienced serious head trauma is most likely to exhibit:
a. anterograde amnesia that gradually worsens followed by some degree of retrograde amnesia
b. anterograde and retrograde amnesia that do not worsen over time
- b. anterograde and retrograde amnesia that do not worsen over time - in contrast to other types of dementia, dementia due to head trauma is usually nonprogressive
- An early sign of Huntington's disease, which can cause misdiagnosis as a psychiatric disorder is:
a. sleep disturbances
c. memory loss for autobiographical information
- d. depression
- Untreated _____ produces a slowing down of functioning and diminished capabilities
- In comparison to the tricyclics, the SSRIs:
a. are less effective for "melancholic" depresions
b. are more cardiotoxic
c. are less associated with anticholinergic side effects
d. are contraindicated when there is a high risk
- c. are less assoc with anticholinergic side effects
- An elderly man who has recently begin taking lithium as a treatment for Bipolar Disorder is most likely to exhibit which of the following side effects:
b. paradoxical agitation
c. visual and auditory disturbances
- d. fine hand tremor - other common side effects include nausea, polydipsia, and polyuria
- Methylphenidate is considered by some experts to be contraindicated as a treatment for ADHD when the child has:
a. a family hx of substance dependence
b. a family hx of Tourette's Syndrome
c. a co-diagnosis of mental retardation
- b. a family hx of tourette's syndrome
- After reading in her psych textbook that iq begins to decrease with age after the late teens, a 36yo psych undergraduate who has recently returned to school asks her prof to prove that this is a real phenomenon. ASsuming that access to data is no prob, i
- This is a reasearch question - declines in iq beg in late adolescence r likely to be found when a cross-sectional design is used but not until later in life when other research designs are used.
- Each neuron consists of three distinct components: the dendrites, the _____ (soma), and the _____, which may be covered by a _____ sheath.
- cell body; axon; myelin
- Conduction of information within neurons is an _____ process.
- When a cell becomes sufficiently depolarized, and _____ potential occurs and travels the full length of the axon.
- These potentials are governed by the _____ law, which means that they either occur or do not occur.
- all or none
- The relay of nerve impulses between cells involves the release of a _____ by the presynaptic cell into the synaptic cleft.
- _____ is involved in both voluntary movement and memory.
- Ach (acetylcholine)
- Of the catecholamines, low levels of ______ are associated with some forms of depression, while excessive ____ is believed to underlie schizophrenia.
- norepinephrine and dopamine; dopamine
- The ______ may be responsible for the pain relief produced by acupuncture.
- Drugs that increase brain levels of which of the following elevate mood and relieve depession:
- b. norepinephrine
- Some people suffering from chronic pain have been found to have abnormally low levels of ____ in their cerebrospinal fluid.
- a. endorphins
- Drugs that increase brain levels of which of the following elevate mood and relieve depression:
- b. norepinephrine
- Some people suffering from chronic pain have been found to have abnormally low levels of ____ in their cerebrospinal fluid:
- a. endorphins
- The venum of the black widow spider has an opposite effect of the poison botulin. It causes an excessive flow of the neurotransmitter ____ into the neuromuscular junction.
- Ach - acetylcholine
- Tom eats a very large mal. The ____ branch of his ANS works to aid digestion by activating his digestive system and decreasing his heart rate and the blood flow to his skeletal muscles.
- If Tom hears a gunshot in his backyard during his meal, the _____ branch of his ANS would prepare him for a "flight or fight response" by causing an increase in his heart rate and sweat gland activity and by inactivating his digestive system.
- The action potential obeys the ____ law, which means that, once a minimum level of stimulation is reached, additional stimulation has no additional effect.
- all or none
- The ____ nervous system regulates the activities of the body's skeletal muscles.
- During the ____ period, a neuron cannot "fire" regardless of the intensity of the stimulation.
- absolute refractory
- The hindbrain consists of the medulla, the pons, and the _____, which is important in balance, posture, and coordination.
- The midbrain includes the ____, which is vital to consciousness and arousal.
- RAS - reticular activating system
- The forebrain has two components: the diencephalon and the telencephalon. The diencephalon includes the _____, which is a relay station for senses except ____.
- thalamus; olfaction
- The ____ governs a number of vital functions (hunger, thirst, temp) and initiates the responses needed to maintain the body's internal ______.
- hypothalamus; homeostasis.
- The telencephalon includes the basal ganglia, the limbic system, and the cerebral cortex. The basal ganglia are important in the regulation of muscle ____ and fine motor control.
- The limbic system is associated primarily with emotional activities. The impact of the _____ on emotions is evidenced by the _____ syndrome, which develops when this area is lesioned and is characterized by docility, visual agnosia, and hypersexuality.
- amygdala; Kluver-Bucy
- In contrast, lesions to the ____ produce a rage syndrome that involves hyperemotionality and vicious behaviors.
- The hippocampus is involved more with _____ than with emotions.
- learning and memory
- The cerebral cortex regulates the higher cognitive, emotional, and motor functions. It is divided into two hemispheres which, in turn are divided into four lobes. The frontal lobes contain the ______, ______ area, and the prefrontal cortex.
- motor; Broca's
- Damage to the frontal lobes produces a variety of problems including deficits in ____ thinking and a loss of ______ and social tact.
- divergent; empathy
- The parietal lobes contain the _____ cortex. D
- Damage to this area results in tactile _____, apraxia, and disturbances in spatial ability.
- Lesions in the right parietal lobe may cause _____ neglect, while lesions in the left parietal lobe can produce _____ Syndrome.
- contralateral; Gerstmann
- The temporal lobes contain the _____ cortex and _____ area.
- auditory; Wernicke's
- Injury to the temporal lobes can result in auditory agnosia and _____ aphasia.
- The temporal lobes are also involved in the ______ memory.
- Finally, the occipital lobes contain the ____ cortex, which is responsibile for visual perception, recognition, and memory.
- Damage may produce _____ which is an inability to recognize familiar objects.
- visual agnosia
- For most (but not all) sensory and motor functions, the cortex exhibits _____, which means that the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and vice versa.
- contralateral representation
- While both hemispheres play a role in most behaviors, the ____ (dominant) hemisphere is primarily responsible for language, _____ memory, and ______ emotions...
- left; verbal; positive
- while the _____ (non-dominant) hemisphere governs _____ recognition, nonverbal memory and _____ emotions.
- right; facial; negative
- The lateralization of functions has been demonstrated by studies examining the effects of severing the _____ in order to control epilepsy.
- corpus callosum
- When a familiar object is presented to the right visual field of a split-brain patient, for ex, teh patient can _______ the object but cannot pick it out with her _____ hand.
- name; left
- Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide info on the _____ of the brain.
- The former makes use of ______, while the latter depends on magnetic fields.
- ______ uses a radioactive tracer substance to obtain info aabout the metabolic activities (functions) of the brain.
- PET (and SPECT)
- A man is sleeping. Although the street noises outside his bedroom window do not awaken him, he immediately wakes up in response to a noise downstairs. The ____ is the brain structure that is responsible for the man's arousal.
a. reticular formation
- a. reticular formation
- While at the opera, a college prof unzips his pants in the lobby and, in front of a stunned crowd, relieves himself against the nearest pillar. The man is subsequently diagnosed as having suffered damage to the _____ lobes:
- a. frontal
- The body's circadian rhythms are controlled by the:
b. cingulate gyrus
c. suprachiasmatic nucleus
- c. suprachiasmatic nucleus
- A woman whose corpus callosum has been cut is blindfolded and a familiar object is placed in her (right/left) hand. She is NOT able to verbally identify the object.
- In humans, injury to certain regions in the _____ lobe has been found to produce blind spots in the visual field.
- _____ involved in respiration, circulstion, and other vital ANS functions?
- ______ is a relay station that processes sensory indormation and routes it to the cortex.
- _____ damage to this area is associated with deficits in the ability to consolidat memories.
- ______ helps maintain the body's homeostasis through its control over the ANS and the pituitary gland.
- _____ damage produces ataxia (slurred speech, tremors, and loss of balance).
- ______ damage to this area may result in Huntington's chorea or Parkinson's disease.
- basal ganglia
- ______ contains centers involved in the generation and maintenance of emotional states.
- limbic system
- ______ is the inability to recognize familiar objects.
- ______ absent or deficient speech or language comprehension.
- _____ is impairments in the ability to carry out complex, sequential and purposeful motor acts.
- ______ impairments in coordination and balance.
- Lesions to the _____ lobe produce contralateral neglect, dressing apraxia, and other visuospatial difficulties.
- right parietal
- CT and MRI provide information on the (structure/function) of the brain.
- ECT to the right side of the brain is likely to have the greatest impact on (verbal/nonverbal) memory.
- The retina contains two types of receptor cells: The _____ are concentrated in the center of the retina and mediate _____ vision.
- cones; daytime and color
- The _____ dominate at teh periphery of the retina and are responsibile for _____ vision.
- rods; peripheral and nighttime
- According to the _____ theory of color vision, there are three types of receptors that respond to either red, blue, or green.
- In contrast, ______ theory proposes the existence of red-green, yellow-blue, and black-white receptors.
- Most dichromats are unable to distinguish between _____.
- red and green
- Because color blindness is most often due to a sex-linked recessive trait, ____ are at a higher risk for color blindness.
- ______ theory explains the perception of low frequency sounds (below 1k hHz), while _____ theory is more useful for explaining the ability to perceive high frequency sounds (over 4k Ha).
- frequency; place
- _____ is a form of sensorineural deafness that occurs in old age and involves a loss of sensitivity to high-frequency tones.
- The ______ are the receptor cells for taste.
- taste buds
- They are sensitive to four primary taste qualifies: bitter, sweet, sour, and _____.
- Olfaction is the only sense that doesn't have a _____ relay.
- Of the senses, _____ is the only one that is not linked to a single type of stimulus.
- According to _____ theory, the perception of pain can be blocked by special cells in the spinal cord.
- Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between physical stimulus magnitudes and their corresponding psychological _____.
- According to _____ Law, the more intense the stimulus, the greater the increase in intensity needed to produce a just noticeable difference.
- Fechner's Law proposes that physical stimulus changes are _____ related to their psychological sensations.
- According to ______ Law, sensation is an exponential function of stimulus intensity.
- Stevens' Power
- The hypothalamus has been linked to both hunger and thirst. Lesions in the _____ produce hhperphagia, a condition involving excessive overeating and obesity.
- In contrast, lesions in the _____ result in aphagia, which is a cessation of eating that can result in death.
- LHA - Lateral Hypothalamic Area
- Obesity has been linked to a number of factors including an unusually large number of _____ and greater responsivity to ____ cues.
- lipocytes; external
- Treatments for obesity generally incorporate cognitive-behavioral techniques, esp self-monitoring and ____ as well as changing eating behaviors, increasing activity levels, adn reducing negatie thinking.
- stimulus control
- The inability of humans to perceive a "reddish-green" color is predicted by the _____ theory of color vision.
- Perception of tones above 4k Hz is best explained by the ____ theory of pitch perception.
- An athlete doesn't perceive pain from an injury received during the game until the game is over. This phenomenon is predicted by _____ theory.
- The (rods/cones) are responsible for nighttime vision.
- Schachter's research on obesity suggests that overweight people are (more/less) affected than normal-weight people by external cues related to food.
- In a family, the father is not color blind but the mother is a carrier of this trait. In terms of offspring:
a. their daughters are more likely to be color blind than their sons
b. their sons may be color blind but their daughters won't be
- b. their sons may be color blind but their daughters won't be
- while the ______ theory proposes that emotion-provoking stimuli simultaneously produce subjective emotional experience and bodily reactions.
- Schachter and Singer's two-factor theory describes emotions as a combination of unexplained physiological arousal and ______ of that arousal and the environment in which it occurs.
- cognitive interpretations
- While the _____ is referred to as the "emotional brain," other areas of the brain have also been linked to the regulation of emotion.
- limbic system
- The frontal area of the ____ governs positive emotions and damage to this area results in ______.
- left hemisphere; catastrophic reactions
- In contrast, the ______ mediates negative emotions and damage produces _____.
- right hemisphere; indifference
- Facial expression is also asymmetrical, with more intense emotions usually being expressed on the ____ side of the face.
- Plutchik proposes that there are ____ primary emotions that are universal, innate, and represent adaptive evolutionary responses.
- The universality hypothesis has been criticized on the ground that there are cultural differences in teh experssion of emotion that reflect culture-specific _____.
- display rules
- Selye's general adaptation model predicts that the response to stress involves three states:
- alarm, reaction, and exhaustion
- This response is mediated primarily by the adrenal cortex and the ______ gland.
- _____ states that sensation is an exponential function of stimulus intensity.
- Stevens' Power Law
- Hyperphagia and aphagia are the result of lesions to the:
c. basal ganglia
- b. hypothalamus
- Following surgery to relieve severe epilepsy, H.H. was able to recall remote events, but he exhibited severe ____ amnesia.
- Areas of the brain responsible for his memory loss include the _____ lobes, which are essential for long-term memory, the ______ which is involed in memoey that has emotional significance
- temporal; amygdala
- ____ which mediates memory consolidation.
- There is some evidence that these structures are responsible for _____ (conscious) memory, while ____ (unintentional memory) depends on the basal ganglia, ventral thalamus, and premotor cortex.
- explicit; implicit
- At the neural level, long-term _____ in teh hippocampus is believed to be involved in long-term memory.
- There is also evidence that long-term memory depends on increased _____ durin gthe mintues or hours following training.
- protein synthesis
- ____ is inhibited as the time of training, long-term memory is impaired.
- RNA - ribonucleic acid
- According to the _____ theory, emotions reflect perceptions of bodily reactions (I'm scared becasue my knees are shaking)
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