Glossary of Physics - AS Level - Motion

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v =
v = u + at
x =
x = ut + 1/2(at^2)
u =
initial velocity
a =
t =
v^2 =
v^2 = u^2 + 2ax
average velocity =
x/t = (v+u)/2
Acceleration of freefall, at this latitude:
9.81 m s^-2
Newton's first law:
'Every object remains at rest or continues with constant velocity unless acted upon by a resultant force.'
gravitational field strength at sea level:
9.81 N kg^-1
Mathematical version of Newton's Second law:
F = ma (F = resultant force (if a forward and back force, take back from forward to get resultant.))
Free-body force diagram:
shows all the forces acting on the object whose motion is to be analysed.
momentum equation
momentum = mass x velocity (p = mv). Momentum is a vector quantity.
Newton's Second law:
The momentum change per unit time of an object is equal to the resultant force acting on that object.

rate of change of momentum = resultant force
Newtons second law formula:
F = (delta(mv))/(delta t)
impulse =
force x time for which the force acts (newton's second law rearranged to F deltat = delta(mv))
force vs time graphs - full area under curve =
total momentum change of the ball = total impulse applied to the ball
The PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM: 'If no external force acts on a system, then the total momentum of the system remains constant.'
Newton's Third Law:
'If body A exerts a foce on body B, the B exert an equal but opposite force on A'
The first force:
1. Gravity. The dominant force in the universe for shaping the large scale structure of galaxies and stars.
The second force:
2. The strong nuclear force: Holds neutrons and protons together inside the nucleus.
The third force:
3. The weak nuclear force: Involved in radioactivity.
The fourth force:
4. The Electromagnetic force: Responsible for attractive and repulsive forces between atoms and is involved in each of the following:
i) Air resistance
ii) Contact forces
iii) Friction
The kinematic equations for a body moving in a straight line with uniform acceleration are: (4)
v = u + at
s = ut + 1/2(at^2)
v^2 = u^2 + 2as
v with line over = (u+v)/2
The gradient of a displacement-time graph gives...
the velocity of a particle
the gradient of a velocity-time graph gives...
the area between a velocity-time grpah and the time axis gives...
the acceleration of a particle.
the displacement.
How is the motion of projectiles analysed?
In terms of two independant motions at right angles. Horizontal component = constant velocity. Vertical is subject to constant acceleration

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