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Glossary of Phsiology for LMT Certification: Basic Cellular Review

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Prokaryote
A cell with no nucleus in which to store genentic material (e.g. Blood cells and Bacteria)
Eukaryote
A cell with an enclosed nucleus in which ir stores genentic material
Cell Membrane
The external structure that contains the cells contents, Regulates what travels in and out of the cell; Phsopholipid bilayer
Nucleus
The Largest of the organelles, it contains:

*Deoxyribonucleic Acid- DNA
*Chromosomes- Thread-like stuctures made of DNA; humans 23 pairs of Chromosomes.
*Genes- segmnets of chromsomes that carry genetic code for a certain protein
*Ribonucleic- a single-stranded molecule that transports DNA info to the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the cell.
Ribosomes
Organelles That use the info in RNA to create Proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
a network tubules in the cytoplasm that packages and ships the protein created by Ribosomes to different areas of the cell.

*Rough ER-ER that has Ribosomes bound to it surface, produce the proteins that are secreted by the cell

*Smooth ER-ER that lacks Ribosomes bound to it surface,many enzymes that synthesize important lipids and steroids are contained here
Mitochondria
Organelles that tranform fats into energy by synthesize it into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) This molecule is then broken down(burnt) by the cell as energy; Powerhouse of the cell
Lysosome
A packet of digestive enzymes that digest cells and organelles that are foregin or damaged
Centrioles
small, spindle like organelles that supervise cell divison
Cilia
hair-like protrusion from the cell membrane used for moving substance
Flagellum
a tail-like projection on the cell membrane used for motility
Mitosis
the process by which one cell divides into two identical cells
Tonicity
a measure of strength of a concentration of a solution
Hypertonic
a solution with higher cocentration of solute
Isotonic
a solution with same cocentration of solute
Hypotonic
a solution with higher cocentration of solute

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