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Glossary of Phonics, Phonemic Awareness and Word Analysis Chapter 3 Terms

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1. linguistically, consonants are sounds produced by a restriction in the airstream. In english, single consonants contain the most consistent relationship between letters and ________.
sounds
2. onset patterns of initial consonants, combined with preparation in common rime patterns, are almost always included during beginning _______ instruction
reading
3. consonants carry more info about words than ______.
vowels
4. key words are examples of words containing comment onset consonants. Letter-sound relationships for onset consonants are often taught with "key-word charts" of memorable words beginning with each of the initial __________.
consonants
7.the most frequent rime patterns begin with the vowel letter _______ and the least frequent rime patterns begin with the vowel_______
a

e
10. rime patterns do not only appear in _______words; they also appear in multiple syllable words such as light-ning.
one-syllable
11. rime patterns are very helpful when decoding both _______ and words.
syllables
13. consonant clusters include two or three _______ that often appear together such as ch,th,st,str,bl, or pr.
consonants
15. consonant digraphs are two different _______ letters that appear together and represent a single sound, or phoneme, not usually associated with each other (i.e. ch, ph, sh, and th
consonant
16. The most common consonant digraphs appearing in the onset position are _______, _______, _______, _______, _______.
wh
ch
th
sh
ph
19. The words this, that, their and them represent a _______ th sound
voiced
20. the words think and thin represent a _______ th sound
voiceless
26.a consonant digraph is composed of ______ consonant letters that represent a single ______. Consonant digraphs include wh,ch,th,sh,ph....
two
phoneme
28. A second type of consonant cluster appearing at the onset position is called a consonant ______. A consonant blend consists of two or three consecutive consonant letters, each representing a separate phoneme that is blended together.
blends
29. examples are: brick, blue, scream, skip and street. You can hear elements of each of the separate ______ as they are blended together.
phonemes
There are "r" blends such as in the words: ______, ______, ______,______.
frog, green, princess, tree, three, bread, crash and drum.
There are "l" blends such as in the words: ______, ______, ______, ______.
blue, clown, flower, glove, plane, sleep and splash.
33. The three main categories of ______ blends are (1) those with ______ as the final letter, (2) those with ______ as the beginning letter and (3) those with ______ as the final letter.
l
s
r
34. A consonant ______ is a combination of two or three ______ letters, each of which retain its own ______ when pronounced.
blend
consonant
phoneme (sound)
35. THe following _________ letters can represent more than one sound when they appear in certain contexts: c, g, s, q, d, x, t and z. Many of these patterns are presented in reading programs when _________ is taught.
consonant

phonics
37. words such as comb, cone, cat, can, cucumber and cute exhibit a _________ c sound
hard
38. words such as sale, city, celery, cymbal and cycle exhibit a _________ c sound
soft
42. words such as good, goat, game and gun exhibit a _________ g sound
hard
44. words such as gentle, gem, gym adn giraffe exhibit the _________ g sound
soft
53. In the suffix _________ the letter t represents the sound of the digraph sh
tion
When there is a double consonant in a word, usually only _____ of the consonants is heard.
one
Three consonant combinations that contain a slilent letter or marker are _____, _____, and _____.
kn
gn
wr
When the letters bt, kn, gn, and mb appear together one of the letters is ______ or a _______
silent
marker
80. letters in English do not always represent a single _______. nevertheless, knowledge of the more regular letter-sound relationships helps us to recognize many of the _______ we encounter.
sound
words
in english,the most consistent letter-sound relationships occur with _______.
consonants
onset patterns appear at the _______ of words or syllables and consist of _______
beginning
consonants
rime patterns appear at the _______ of syllables or words and begin with a _______
end
vowel
onset and rime patterns combine to form _______ or _______
words
syllables
consonant clusters inclue two or three consonants letters that appear _______
together
the letters ch in the word choose are called a consonant _______ since they are two consecutive consonant letters that represent a _______ sound, not usually associated with either letter
digraph

single
the letters sk in the word skip are consonant _______ since they are two consecutive consonant letters, each representing a separate _______ that is blended together with the other
blend

phoneme
the onset letter c usually represents the sound associated with the letter k when it is followed by the voewel a, o, or u. we refer to this as the "_______ c" sound
hard
when there is a double consonant in a word, usually only one of the consonants is heard. the other is _______
silent (or a marker)
when a word or syllable starts with the letters kn, hn, or wr the _______ letter is usually _______
first
silent

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