Glossary of Philo: Kant - Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

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What was the three categories philosophy was divided into?
Logic, ethics and physics.
What are the two types of rational thought?
It is either concerned with corporeal objects or with purely abstract general rules.
How are the different categories of philosophy related to the division of rational thought?
Logic pertains to rational thought of the abstract kind and physics and ethics pertain to material rational thought.
What is a priori principle based philosophy termed?
Pure philosophy
What is the distinction between a practical rule and a moral law?
Practical rules are based on empiricism; whereas, moral laws are independent of empiricism and are based upon a priori principles.
What is good without limit?
A good will.
Why is a good will good without limit?
Not because of its consequences but because of its intrinsic goodness.
What does Kant say about usefullness and a good will?
He argues that the usefullness of a good will is entirely independent of its intrinsic worth.
What does Kant say about the nature of beings and the ends which they aim to achieve?
Kant argues that on principle any instrument one has is only for an end in which it is appropriate for/conducive to it.
What is the aim of reason in terms of beings?
To cultivate the will; not as a means to an end but as good intrinsically.
What determines the worth of our actions?
A good will
What is the difference between an act done in conformity with duty and act from duty?
An act which is done from duty is done on the principle of the maxim followed; whereas, an act done in conformity with duty is an act which coincidentially follows duty. Actions conform but are not from duty because of an inclintation, for self-interest, for example.
How do actions gain moral worth?
Not from inclincation but from duty.
What is duty?
The necessity of action from the respect of a law.
What does an action from duty involve?
One has to put aside one's inclinations. One should only consider the object law and one's own subject respect for the law.
What is the universability principle?
"I ought never to act except in such a way that I could also will my maxim should become a universal law"
What does Kant term the reason one uses to ascertain moral laws?
Practial reason
What is the mistake others make when interpreting what practial reason denotes/connotes?
That is involves experience. Kant argues that experience plays no role in ascertaining the moral worth of an action.
Who do the laws apply to?
All rational beings.
Are they absolute or relative?
They have absolute necessity.
Why, according to Kant, can't specific instances/cases be the basis of morality?
Examples of morality must first be measured by principles of morality in order for it to be considered as an original example.
What is the use of examples of morality?
As encouragement.
What does everything in nature work according to?
What are the only things which act in accordance with laws?
Rational beings
What is the will?
Practical reason
What do all imperatives (i.e. objective principles) express?
An ought
Why, according to Kant, do wills not necessitate compliance with objective laws?
The will is constituted of a subjective element which leads to it not being an all good will.
Why are imperatives different for divine wills and holy wills?
The divine will necessitates compliance with imperatives; whereas, the holy will, due to its subjective constitution, does not necessitate compliance with imperatives.
What is the difference between categorical and hypothetical imperatives?
A hypothetical imperative subscribes actions as means to an end - the action is good only as a means to another purpose; whereas, categorical imperatives subscribe actions as ends themselves - in other words, they are intrinsically good actions.
What does an imperative do?
It "represents a practical rules for a will which doesn't carry out good acts automatically.
What is another term for a categorical imperative?
An apodictically practical principle.
What is speculative reason?
It is one's faculty of knowledge and is concerned with metaphysics.
What is practical reason concerned with?
Practical reason is the will and is concerned with moral philosophy.

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