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Glossary of Pharmacological Information

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Penicillin G is what type of antibiotic?
Penicillin G is the prototype penicillin of the antibiotic penicillin class of drugs.
What bacteria is Penicillin G effective against?
Penicillin G is given for the treatment of gram (+) bacterial infections including, anaerobes and spirochettes.
Describe the action of Penicillin G.
Penicillin G inhibits the third and final stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins, (PBPs) which are located inside the bacterial wall.
Which of the following classes of antibiotics is MOST likely to induce an allergic reaction?
a) aminoglycosides
b) macrolides
c) penicillins
d) cephalosporins
c) penicillins
Generally speaking, penicillin G is INEFFECTIVE in the management of
a) most gram-negative infections
b) gram-postive anaerobic infections
c) gram-positive spirochete infections
d) endocarditis prophylaxis
a) most gram-negative bacteria infections
Which of the following routs is INAPPROPRIATE for administration of penicillin?
a) PO
b) SC
c) IM
d) IV
b) SC
Before the administration of penicillin it is important to
a) check the CBC results
b) determine if any previous reactions to antibiotics have occurred
c) ask the patient to void
d) check the patient's pregnancy status
b) determine if any previous reactions to antibiotics have occurred
Penicillin as a cross sensitivity to which of the following drug classes?
a) aminoglycosides
b) cephalosporins
c) erythromycins
d) tetracyclines
b) cephalosporins
Extended-spectru penicillins are extremely effective agains
a) gonorrhea
b) Streptococcus
c) Pseudomonas
d) Staphylococcus
c) Pseudomonas
Presository forms of penicillin G include
a) peniciliin VK
b) penicillin G postassium
c) penicillin G sodium
d) procaine penicillin G
d) procaine penicillin G
Beta Lactamase inhibitors are given in conjunction with penicillin to
a) change the protein binding sites
b) increase the spectrum of activitiy
c) target the enzyme that may destroy penicillin
d) decrease the potential for adverse ef
c) target the enzyme that may destroy penicillin
a benefit of aztreonam (Azactam) therapy is that it
a) has increased spectrum of activity
b) may be used in penicillin - allergic patients
c) has decreased potential for adverse effects
d) has decreased potential for drug-drug interac
b) may be used in penicillin-allergic patients
Vancomycin is used in the management of
a) sexually transmitted diseases
b) urinary tract infection
c) serious systemic bacterial infections
d) cellulitis
c) serious systemic bacterial infections
The most serious adverse effects to vancomycin are
a) sinis tachycardia and hypotension
b) ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
c) hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity
d) histamine release and phlebitis
b) ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
Generally speaking, cephalosporin antibiotics should be taken for
a) 7 - 10 days
b) 2 - 3 days
c) 1 - 5 days
d) 10 - 21 days
a) 7 - 10 days
What is the major difference between the different "generations" of cephalosporin agents
a) pharmacodynamics
b) spectrum of activity
c) emergence of drug resistance
d) ability to induce allergic responses
b) spectrum of activity
What is the difference between imipenem (Primaxin) and meropenem (Merrem)
a) meropenem has a narrow spectrum of activity, and imipenem does not
b) Imipenem has a narrow spectrum of activity and meropenem does not
c) Meropenem is easily ina
d) Imipenem is easily inactivated and must be administered with cilastatin
Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins frequently presents with
a) shortness of breath
b) hives
c) nausea and vomiting
d) maculopapular rash
d) maculopapular rash
Chelsea Lincoln is prescribed penicillin V for a dental infection. Which of the following instructions would you give?
a) "Take the medication with food for best results"
b) "although it is ordered QID, you can double the dose a
d) "Take the medication 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal"
Yancy Smith, age 86 has pneumonia and is prescribed penicillin. Mr. Smith has a history of renal insufficiency. Which of the following lab tests should be done before initiating therapy?
a) pulmonary function tests
b) BUN and creatinine
c)
b) BUN and creatinine
Randy Rodriguez is hospitalized with bacteremia. He is prescribed IV penicillin G and gentamycin. How would you administer these drugs?
a) Wait at least 2 hours between adminstration of these drugs
b) wait 30 minutes between administration of t
a) Wait at least 2 hours between administration of these drugs.
Jack French comes to the clinic and is diagnosed with an infection. When asked about allergies, Mr. French stated, "I have an allergy to penicillin, but I can take ampicillin." with your knowledge about these drugs, you know that,
a) this
b) Mr. French should not take any form of drug with "cillin" in its name if he has an allergy to penicillin.
Danny Conners has just received an injection of IM procaine penicillin. Within 30 seconds, he became confused and agitated and ran from the exam room. You suspect
a) Mr. Conners has been taking some type of illicit drugs.
b) al allergy to peni
d) a procaine reaction
Hanna Clark is being treate with cefazolin and gentamycin. Because of this combination, Mrs. Clark has an increased risk for
a) cardiotoxicity
b) hepatotoxicity
c) ototoxicity
d) nephrotoxicity
d) nephrotoxicity
Jim Jones takes warfarin for deep vein thrombosis, (DVT) prophylaxis. He has recurrent cellulitis in his leg and is prescribed cefixime (Suprax). You would anticipate Mr. Jones warfarin dose to be
a) increased
b) decreased
c) unchanged
b) decreased
Freida Williams has been receiving IV cefazolin for the past 24 hours, and the next dose in now due. You note that the culture and sensitivity report has returned and reports that her infection is resistant to cephalosporins. You would
a) hang the c
c) hold the cefazolin, contact the health care provider, and get an order for a new antibiotic.
Geoffrey Baines has an order for IV cefazolin (Kefzol). As you take the medication out of the refrigerator, you note that the solution is dated yesterday. You should
a) allow the solution to warm for 15 minutes, then administer
b) give the infu
a) allow the solution to wram for 15 minutes, then administer
Nelson Olson is receiving vancomycin therapy. To minimize adverse effect, the health care provider has ordered peak and trough blood levels. When is the optimal time for you to obtain the peak blood level?
a) 30 minutes before the next infusion
d) 1 hour after the onset of the infusion
Michael Richards is scheduled to receive IV vancomycin. To safely administer this medication, the nurse should infuse it
a) over 20 minutes
b) over 60 minutes
c) over 2 - 3 hours
d) within 10 minutes
b) over 60 minutes
What are the normal peak and trough values for Vancomycin?
Normal lab values for a peak and trough for vancomycin is, Peak no greater than 25 micrograms/mL
trough should be between 5-10 micrograms/mL

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