Glossary of Personality Psychology Chapter 7
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- According to Cognitive Psychologists, what is at the CORE of personality?
- Perception and cognition.
How we see things and come to think of things influences our personalities.
- What is at the root of cognitive approaches?
- Darwin's law of evolution which showed the brain as influential to our behavior.
- Cognitive theory suggests that our thought process can be changed by what three factors:
- -As an individual develops
-by our culture
- WHAT IS THE CENTRAL TENET of GESTALT theory?
- HUMAN BEINGS SEEK MEANING IN THEIR ENVIRONMENTS.
- What do Gestaltists believe of complex stimuli?
- We take in complex sensations into a individually meaningful perception THAT IS MORE THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS.
- GESTALT THEORY CENTERS AROUND
a person's perception is everything.
- Who was the father of social psychology and why are we studying him?
- Kurt Lewin for his Field Theory
- What is Lewin's "Life-space":
- the idea that all internal and external forces act on an individual and our retaliation to these forces is our outward behavior.
- What is lewin's definition of personality?
- Contemporaneous causation- momentary condition of the individual (VERY FLUID)
- What is Lewin's field dependence?
- The extent to which an individual is influenced by context.
- How is field dependence measured?
- Rod and frame test
- do you turn the rod to make it parallel or do you turn the whole frame including the rod.
- What are the results of the rod-frame test? Why are they important?
- Field-dependent vs independent
The results are reliable and consistent throughout lifetime.
Predicts many INTERPERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS.
- What INTERPERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS does the result of rod-field test predict?
- Children's play preferences
- What gender differences and culture differences, if any do we see with field rod test results?
- Gender difference: females tend to be more field dependent
Hunter-gatherer societies are more field independent (Eastern cultures= field dependent)
- Cognitive complexity
-what are the two levels of cognitive complexity
- High cognitive complexity- more comfortable with uncertainty.
Low cognitive complexity- view the world in simple absolute terms.
- What is the natural shift in cognitive complexity?
-what is the debate associated with cognitive complexity?
- A person usually tends to shift from low cognitive complexity to higher cognitive complexity as their age increases.
Whether or not this is really a personality characteristics since its shift is so predictable.
- What is categorization and who proposed it?
- Jean Piaget proposed categorization as the tendency to organize our experience by assigning the events, objects, and people we encounter into categories
- What did Jean Piaget mean when he said categorization is omnipresent and automatic?
- It always happens and does not require conscious effort.
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of a person's categorizations?
-makes understanding complex stimuli easier and quicker by comparison to simpler scenarios.
*recall people are more likely to see what they believe.
- How do we control our attention?
- We notice salient environmental features and combine these with our current goals to decide where to direct or attention
- What is ADHD?
- The inability to switch one's attention from one spatial location to another.
- What two things did Kelly believe about personality?
- -preception of the event is far more important than the event itself.
-present personality NEED NOT BE tied to his/her past.
- KELLY'S personal construct theory
-focus is on...
- People as scientists
Each of us tries to understand the world in our own ways. We construct our own versions of reality.
- What is the main goal of KELLY'S personal construct theory?
- To reduce uncertainty.
- According to the theory of personal constructs, what is personality?
- the collection of construct (mini-scientific theories) that allow us to deal with the world.
- How did kelly postulate we create our constructs? then what?
- Kelly believed we are free to create constructs but then we are controlled by them (as some are inflexible)
- What is Gardener's theory of multiple intelligences?
- Everyone has at least seven different intelligences.
we all vary in the amount of each
Skills are also included in intelligence.
- What are the seven intelligences and what do they mean?
-Understanding the self (intrinsic)
-Understanding others (extrinsic)
- Why does Gardner reject IQ tests?
- he believes they are too narrow for one they do not measure any social intelligence measures.
- What are explanatory types?What are the two types of explanatory types?
- A set of cognitive personality variables which exemplify an individual’s habitual way of interpreting events
Optimism and pessemism
- What is the result of execessive optimism? What is the result of defensive pessemism?
- excessive optimism may be detrimental to sucess (overlooking or downplaying legitimate problems)
Defensive pessemism- when the chance for failure is high, lowered expectations are adaptive (Self-handicapping)
- What do we expect on a graph plotting level of arousal vs. test performance?
- As arousal goes up, test performance seems to increase to a point where too much stress actually hinders performance.
- What is attributional style?
-what are the two types?
-how does attribution style effect future behavior?
- locus of control.
INTERNAL- assigns causality to theindividual
EXTERNAL- assigns causality to an outside agent or force.
We are more likely to try when we assign an internal attribution style.
- What is attribution error?
- the tendancy to make internal attributions to our successes and other's failures, while making external attributions for others' successes and our failures.
- Repeated exposure to unavoidable punishment leads an organism to accept later punishment even when it is avoidable.
- learned helplessness
- Which psychologist believed that personality represents an interaction of the individual with his or her environment.
- Julian Rotter
- Rotter suggested a person's behavior is determined by what two factors?
- Outcome expectancy and reinforcement value
- A person's expectation that they will be rewarded for their behavior
- Outcome expectancy
- a VERY PERSONAL expectation of the reinforcement's value
- Reinforcement value
- the likelihood that a particular behavior will occur in a specific situation
- behavior potential
- expecting a certain reward to follow a behavior in a particular situation
- Specific expectancies
- expectancies that are related to a group of situations
- generalized expectancies
- When are each general expectancies and specific expectancies used?
- Generalized expectancies used in new situations.
Specific expectancies used in familiar situations.
- Who proposed the theory of locus of control?
- JULIAN ROTTER NOT gardner
- what is the healthiest combination of locus of control?
- To have internal locus of control for things for which we can control and have an external locus of control for things which we cannot control.
- What is ALBERT BANDURA's greatest contribution?
- Social modeling- Reinforcement does not influence learning, only performance.
- What study did Bandura perform to study social modeling?
- Bobo doll study- where adults acted aggressively toward a bobo doll in the presence of a child, when the children were alone, they MODELED the adults behavior.
- Bandura's study also confirmed which of Roter's theoris?
- behavior is dependent on outcome expectancy. The children did what they saw because they believed they would be rewarded for emulating the adults.
- What are the factors that influence social modeling?
-characteristics of the model
-characteristics of the behavior
-Attributes of the observer
- outcome expectancy- more likely to intimate behaviors that they believe will lead to positive reinforcements.
Characteristics of the model- age, gender, status, competence and power all effect influence to imitate.
Characteristics of the behavior: Simple and salient behaviors are more likely imitated.
Attributes of the observer: hisotry of reinforcement, self-esteem, and physical ablity may influence what beahviors are emulated.
- What is self-efficacy? What is it NOT?
- NOT SELF ESTEEM- which is a more global
A belief abut how competently one will be able to perform a behavior in a PARTICULAR SITUATION!
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