Glossary of Pediatrics Growth and Developement

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•Cephalocaudal development
development proceeds from the center of the body out to extremities, head developes first, from large and complex to simple
Proximodistal development
development proceeds from the center of the body outward to the extremities
Influences on Development: Genetics
ht, wt, rate of growth
Influences on Development
•Parental influences
•Family structure
•Socioeconomic influences
•Environment: media, school, community
Rules of 3
•3 months: may roll over
•6 months: sit well, may begin to crawl
•9 months: may pull self to standing
•12 months: may begin to walk
Important milestones/timeline
•1st 6 months gains 6 oz/wk
•doubles birth wt at 6months
• triples birth wt at 1 yr
•teething begins around 6 months
•uses pincer grasp well at 9 months
Important milestones/timelines
•Start soft foods around 6 months
•may say “mama” or “dada” at 9 months
•cup feed by 12 mo
•anterior fontanel closes around 12 - 18 mo
•Stranger anxiety
How is brain growth measured?
head circumference
How much energy(kcal) do infants need daily?
108 kcal/kg/day
When do we introduce food? What kinds?
around 6 mos, fruits and vegtables.
What is FTT? What types are there?
Failure to Thrive.
inorganic=maternal deprovation
Fluid req for a newborn?
1.5ml/kcal used.
Why introduce soft foods @ 6mos
need added iron due to maternal stores being depleted.
1-3 years is...
Toddler hood
What are signs of toddlehood?
•20 deciduous teeth
•2 y/o can build a tower of 4 blocks
•Can undress self
•Jumps, kicks, walks up and down stairs
•Parallel play
•may have physiologic anorexia
•Negativism “N O”
•Object permanence
•Temper Tantrums!!
Stranger anxiety starts/lasts?
When is a child ready for potty training?
can walk up and down the stairs
Parallel play?
each child plays beside another child but not with, group play
Physiological anorexia
Wants one food all the time.
Good way to test object permanance
peek a boo
Best way to deal with t tatrums
ignore them
3-6 years
Signs of a preschooler
•Associative play
•Uses scissors, draws circle, cross
•Eats with utensils
•Loves hospital play ,dolls, imitative dress-up play
•Imaginary friends
•Vocabulary grows from 300 words to 2100!
•Fear of genitalia mutilation
Associate play
children play together but wit no goal, org, division of labor, or leadership assignment.
6 - 12 yr
School age child
signs of a school age child
•School is Important: sense of industry
•deciduous teeth fall out, permanent come in
•Can regress during illness
•Aware of body image
•Peer pressure- want to be the same
Peer pressure
all want to look the same
School age child: 6 - 12 yr
want to please the parents
12-18 yrs
• Puberty
•Skills well developed
•Need 2000 -3000 cal/day
•Seeking independence
•Moral and value development
•Identity development
•Risk takers

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