Glossary of Pectoral girdle and upper limb
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- Appendicular skeleton
- bones of the upper and lower limbs and the supporting elements that connect them
- Pectoral girdle
- where each arm articulates with the trunk. Consists of the clavicle and scapula.
- Articulates medially with the manubrium, laterally with acromion process. A fibrous, syndesmosis joint.
- Sternoclavicular joint
- between the sternam and the clavicle; a gliding joint between the upper limb and axial skeleton that limits shoulder movement
- 2 borders: vertebral/medial, axillary armpit
2 angles: superior/inferior
2 processes: acromion, coracoid
4 fossae: subscapular, infraspinous, supraspinous (for muscles), glenoid for articulation w/ humerus.
- Motions of the scapula
- elevation, depression, protracction, retraction, rotation.
- coracoid process
- anterior projection of scapula over the glenoid fossa; attachment site for biceps brachii
- annular ligament
- at the elbow; binds the proximal radial head to the ulna. prevents forward displacement of the radial head.
- acromion process
- larger, posterior process on the scapula; attachment of trapezius muscle. articulates w/ clavicle at acromioclavicular joint.
- supra/infraglenoid tubercles
- above and below the glenoid fossa; supra is part origin of biceps brachii, infra is part origin of triceps brachii.
- Humerus head
- smooth, round superior medial portion of the proximal epiphysis, articulates with scapula at glenoid cavity.
- greater tubercle of humerus
- lateral superior portion of epiphysis; the most lateral palpatable portion of shoulder. attachment site of 3 muscles from scapula: supra/infraspinatus, and teres minor.
- lesser tubercle of the humerus
- anterior/medial surface of epiphysis. insertion point of subscapularis
- intertubercular/bicipital groove
- seperates the greater/lesser tubercles of the humerus; biceps brachii tendon runs runs along it.
- anatomical neck of humerus
- constriction inferior to the head of humerus; not what we wrap our hand around, but marks the limit of the articular capsule at glenoid joint.
- surgical neck
- metaphysis of the bone, reflects the fact that fractures commonly occur here.
- deltoid tuberosity
- runs along the lateral border of the humerus shaft, more than 1/2way down it. deltoid muscle attaches here.
- condyle of humerus
- dominates the distal inferior surface of humerus; divided into trochlea and capitulum
- medial portion of humeral condyle; articulates with the ulna on the medial forearm.
- coronoid fossa
- on anterior surface of humerus, right above the condyle; accepts projection from ulnar surface as elbow flexes.
- olecranon fossa
- above the trochlea on posterior surface of the humeral condyle; accepts projection of ulna in full extension.
- capitulum and radial fossa
- on lateral side of the humeral condyle; articulates with radius head. radial fossa directly above capitulum accepts radial head in flexion.
- radial groove
- runs along posterior margin of deltoid tuberosity, for path of radial nerve.
- medial/lateral epicondyles
- on sides of elbow joint
- bones of the forearm
- radius and ulna
- point of elbow; top part of the ulna. has a trochlear notch on its anterior surface
- trochlear notch
- interlocks with the trochlea of the humerus, hugs it as the elbow is flexed/extended
- coronoid process
- the anterior and inferior lip of the trochlear notch, where the olecranon is the trochlear notch's posterior/superior lip. like a baby bird waiting for a worm.
- ulnar tuberosity
- directly below the coronoid process
- ulnar head
- at the distal end of the ulna, posterior margin supports the styloid process.
- styloid process
- attachment of ulna and carpal bones at the distal end of the ulna
- forearm, lateral bone
- radial head
- articulates with capitulum of humerus
- radial tuberosity
- site of attachment for biceps brachii; extends from the neck below the head
- radial styloid process
- just like the ulnar
- Wrist bones Some lovers try positions that they can't handle
- Scaphoid, lunate, triangular, pisisform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate.
- Bones of the hand
- 8 Carpals, 5 Metacarpals, 14 phalanges.
- radial deviation
- ulnar deviation
- adduction of the wrist
- metacarpalphalangeal joints
- condyloid joints like in the toes. reference point is the 3rd finger, it can't adduct and only abducts.
- gliding joints of the upper extremity
- sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, carpometacrapals 2-5 and intercarpals.
- ball and socket joints of the upper extremity
- glenohumeral (shoulder)
- hinge joints of upper extremity
- humero-ulnar/radial (elbow), interphalangeal
- glenoid labrum
- a fibrocartilaginous deepening of the glenoid shoulder joint, covers the margin of the glenoid cavity.
- coracohumeral ligament
- originates at base of coracoid process, inserts on humeral head.
- coracoacromial ligament
- spans between coracoid process and acromion, just above the glenoid capsule. supports superior surface of capsule
- radial/ulnar collateral ligaments
- elbow ligaments that stabilize the elbow joint.
- acromioclavicular ligament
- binds acromion to clavicle, restricting clavicular movement at acromion end. dislocation of this joint results in shoulder seperation.
- coracoclavicular ligaments (2)
- tie clavicle to coracoid process, limit relative motion between clavicle and scapula, keeps clavicle from being superior to scapula. medial is conoid, lateral is trapezoid (from posterior view)
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