Glossary of Pathology Final Exam

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↑ in size of cells due to synthesis of more subcellular components, resulting in ↑ in size of the organ (ex. body builder)
↑ in cell numbers, often accompanied by ↑ in size of the organ or tissue
failure of an organ or tissue to reach normal adult size (cell size usually normal)
↓ in size of a cell due to loss of subcellular components, usually resulting in shrinkage of the involved tissue or organ

gross: dec. size, wrinkled capsule
absence of an organ or tissue due to absence of the primordium
absence of an organ or tissue due to failure of the primordium to continue development
morphological manifestations of reversible cell injury
cell death
the result of irreversible cell injury
morphological changes following cell death in a living organism

results largely from degradative action of enzymes on lethally injured cell
morphologic changes in cells following death of the host

largely same processes as in necrosis, but normal body responses to necrosis (ex. inflammation, mitosis) are incapable of occurring
degradation/rot of tissue due to action of saprophytic bacteria which are either normal flora or invade from gut at time of or after death (commonly occurs w/ autolysis)
morphology of necrosis vs. autolysis

1. distribution
2. staining
3. inflammation?
4. cadaver bacteria?
5. preservation of tissue pattern/cellular detail
6. consistency
1. N: patchy, A: generalized/diffuse
2. N: good to poor, A: poor
3. N: present, A: absent
4. N: rare, A: frequent
5. N: focally lost, A: diffusely lost
6. N: variable (friable), A: friable, soft, wet, gas filled
inadequate tissue perfusion
lesions indicative of irreversible cell injury
amorphous densities in mitochondrial matrices

massive swelling of mitochondria

nuclear change (pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis)

lysosomal rupture (occurs later)
lesions indicative of reversible cell injury
cell swelling d/t inc. Na, H2O intracellularly
fatty change: abnormal accumulation of trigylcerides w/in parenchymal cells

detachment of ribosomes from RER
cell surface blebs
mitochondrial swelling
dec. protein synthesis
2 phenomena associated w/ irreversible cell injury
inability to reverse mitochondrial dysfunction upon reperfusion

cell membrane damage
coagulation necrosis
often precedes other types of necrosis
gross & microscopic architecture of necrotic tissue are still recognizable
usually caused by hypoxia, ischemia, or acute toxicity

ex. infarction, Zenker's necrosis (coag necrosis of skeletal muscle)

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