Glossary of Patho Exam 2-505
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- Spontaneous process
- takes place naturally with no apparent cause or stimulus
- Nonspontaneous process
- Requires that something be done for it to occur
- ability to do work
- 2 factors that influence spontaneity
- entropy-measure of disorder or the randomness of the system S --> G
enthalpy-energy gained/lost when a change takes place under constant pressure
- force applied to an object
- types of energy
- thermal, electrical, mechanical, chemical, nuclear & radiant
- potential energy
- stored energy
- kinetic energy
- energy of motion
- chemical rxn
- old bonds break
new bonds form
energy is absorbed or released
- energy is released, bonds MORE stable
- energy is required, bonds LESS stable
- study of the rate of the rxn
- intensive property of a material
- thermal energy
- energy of motion of molecules, atoms and ionsq
- thermal energy transfer; goes from hot --> cold
- Parts of a neuron
- 1.cell body(soma)2.dendrite 3.axon (nucleus, node of ranvier, myelin sheath)
- region between adjacent neurons; impulses transmitted across synapses
- parts of synapse
- synaptic cleft
- relay impulses to synapse
receptors for nerve autoregulation
NT released via exocytosis
- away from synapse
end organ receptors
-nerve to nerve
-nerve to muscle (motor end plate)
-nerve to organ
- Inhibitory NT
-Endorphins & Enkephalins
- Excitatory NT
-Glutamate & aspartate
- E or I NT
- Supporting cells-PNS
- Schwann cells
- Supporting cells-CNS
- Schwann cells
- required for regeneration of peripheral nerves, have myelin sheath(white matter)-nerve growth, insulation for conduction (none of ranvier & saltatory conduction)
- Satellite cells
- peripheral neuron cell bodies bundled in ganglia; separate the cell bodies and processes from connective tissue of ganglion
- bridge-transports gasses back and forth, contain microfibrils that become gliosis scar tissue
- deposit myelin in CNS; neurotrophic factors; insulation for conduction
- remove debris in the CNS; phagocytotic-can move around
- line the neural tube cavity-ventricular system
combine with vascualture to form choroid plexus-CSF
- neuron excitability
- change resting membrane potential as as result of electrochemical stimuli-inside more (-)
- resting membrane potential
- -70 to -85mV; maintain by ative transport of K+ and Na+; more permeable to K+, net charge due to intracellular anion excess
- Action potential
- 1. electrochemical stimulus
2. threshold potential
-absolute refractory period
-relative refractory period
- threshold potential
- small depolarization due to open voltage sensitive Na
- membranes become more permeable to extracellular Na
- voltage gated Na channels close; K channels open
Na stops entering; K exits
- absolute refractory period
- first 3rd of repolarization
- relative refractory period
- remining portion of repolarization here stimulus can affect action potential
Sigma, delta, mu, kappa-endorphins & enkephalins
- Receptors cont.
- Sub P-substance P
Muscarinic or Nicotinic-Acetylcholine
- What is function of receptor
- help trigger an action potential so NT can be transferred from one neuron to next
- Sequence of events in nerve firing
- nerve A releases NT, triggers action potential via receptors due to release of Na+ ions
- development of nervous system
- endoderm/ectoderm-first 2 wks
ectoderm forms mesoderm-wk 3
mesoderm forms notochord
form neural plate-wk 3
plate develops groove that forms neural tube-wk 4
tube develops into CNS
notochord forms vertebral column
- Six stages of embryonic development
- 1.dorsal(posterior) induction
- basic organization of Brain
- medulla oblongata
- Medulla oblongata
- CN VI-XII
- CN V
- temporal and spatial smoothing
voluntary mvmts limb, trunk, head, larynx, eyes
- Efferent CN III & IV
- diencephalon, hemispheres, basal ganglia, 4 lobes, limbic system
- Spinal cord
- Segments-33 of SC; 10 brain
- run //
dorsal horn column
ventral horn column
- dorsal horn column
- sensory nerves
general somatic afferent-skin
special visceral afferent-GI related, taste, smell
general visceral afferent-GI bladder, heart, vessels
- ventral horn colums
- contain OA neurons and LMNs
general visceral efferent-ANS
pharyngeal eff-brachail arch, skeletal muscles, chew
general somatic eff-somite:musles of head/body, motor activity, LMNs-lower motor neurons
- longitudinal tracts
- origin then destination
- What is a neuron?
- Specialized cell of the Nervous system that shares many of the same metabolic activities and constituents as other types of cells (McCance p364)
- What are Dendrites?
- extensions that carry nerve impulses toward the cell body.
- What are Microfilaments / neurofibrils?
- composed of structural proteins which are responsible for structural support within the cell and movement of neuron processes
- What are Microtubules?
- proteins believed to be involved in the transport of cellular products
- What are Nissl substances?
- consist of endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes which are involved in protein synthesis
- What are neural nuclei?
- dense, packed cell bodies in the Central Nervous System
- What are Ganglia / plexuses?
- groups of cell bodies in the PNS.
- What is the Dendritic zone?
- receptive portion of a neuron that receives a stimulus and continues further conduction
- What are Axons?
- long, conductive projections from the cell body that carry nerve impulses away from the cell body
- What is the Axon hillock?
- cone-shaped, nissl-free area where the axon leaves the cell body.
- What is myelin?
- segmented layer of a lipid material
- What is the myelin sheath?
- Entire membrane around an axon. This membrane includes the myelin layer as well as other compounds.
- What is the Endoneurium?
- delicate connective tissue around each axon
- What is the Neurilemma / Schwann Sheath?
- the thin layer between the myelin sheath and the endoneurium
- What are the Nodes of Ranvier?
- regular intervals where the myelin sheath and the neurolemma are interupted
- What is a Schwann cell?
- forms and maintains the myelin sheath, and the nodes of Ranvier form spaces on either side of the Schwann cell.
- What is Salutatory conduction?
- mechanism where myelin acts as an insulator that allows ions to flow between segments rather than along the entire length of the membrane, resulting in increased velocity.
- What is Divergence?
- ability of branching neurons to influence many different neurons.
- What is Convergence?
- branches of numerous neurons converging on and influencing one or a few neurons
- What are Sensory neurons?
- carry impulses from peripheral sensory receptors TO the Central Nervous System.
- What are Association neurons?
- carry impulses from neuron to neuron, such as sensory to motor neurons
- What are Motor neurons?
- transmit impulses FROM the Central Nervous System to an effector organ.
- What is Neuroglia?
- “nerve glue”, it is the general classification of cells that support the neurons of the Central Nervous System.
- What is a synapse?
- The region between adjacent neurons.
- What are the parts of the synapse?
- Synaptic bouton -> synaptic cleft -> postsynaptic membrane
- What is the reflex arc and its components?
- It provides protective circuitry for motor output to respond to stimuli. At minimum, it contains an afferent neuron, an efferent neuron and an effector muscle or gland.
- What is the withdrawal reflex?
- It is a ‘spinal reflex”. It is an automated response to protect the body from an overwhelming stimulus, such as pulling hand off and away from a hot stove.
- List the layers of membranes, bones, and fluid protecting the brain, in the proper order.
- Skin -> Muscle -> Periosteum -> Skull -> Epidural Space -> Periosteum -> Dura Mater -> Arachnoid Space -> Subdural Space -> Subarachnoid Space -> Pia Mater
- What is the function of the blood brain barrier?
- To selectively inhibit certain substances in the blood from entering the interstitial spaces of the brain or CSF.
- What are the neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system?
- Primarily norepinephrine
- What are the neurotransmitters of the parasympathetic nervous system?
- Acetylcholine (Ach)
- What is the NMJ?
- The junction where the neuron conducts to a muscle.
- list the major types of foreign agents and their characteristics
- Bacteria, Viruses, Prion's, Fungus, parasites
- List the characteristics of Bacteria.
- Bacteria – unicellular organisms that have an outer coating or cell wall in addition to a plasma membrane but no or few intracellular organelles.
- List the characteristics of viruses.
- Viruses – consist of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by protein coat.
i. DNA is inserted into the host’s DNA
ii. Unlike bacteria, viruses lack both the enzymatic machinery for metabolism and the ribosomes essential for protein synthesis. Thus:
iii. Cannot replicate on their own.
- List the characteristics of Prion's.
- Prion – “infectious” protein responsible for Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and Kuru in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy or mad cow disease in animals normal structural protein that is found in most cells but has assumed an abnormal shape
Fungal infections are usually self limiting and limited to skin or subcutaneous tissues
- List the types of Parasites.
- protozoa, helminths and arthropods
- List the characteristics of Parasites.
- i. Protozoa are unicellular animals with well defined cell membrane, nucleus and organelles – responsible for diseases such as malaria, amebic dysentery, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis
ii. Helminths – worm-like parasites including roundworms, tapeworm, and flukes
iii. Arthropods – include vectors of infectious diseases (such as mosquitoes, lice and fleas) as well as ectoparasites including mites (scabies), and lice (head, body, pubic)
- define incidence.
- the number of new cases that occur in a defined population (eg., per 100000) over a period of time (yearly)
- Define Portal of Entry.
- How a disease is introduced into an organism.
- List the four portals of entry
- Penetration, direct contact, ingestion, inhalation.
- Describe / define the four portals of entry.
- i. Penetration - direct entry through a defect in skin or mucous membranes
ii. direct contact - Classic example include the STD’s. Can also include vertical transmission from mother to child
iii. ingestion - entry through the oral cavity - classic examples include food poisoning (bacterial), fecal-oral ingestion of viral particles (hepatitis, Norwalk and Rotavirus)
iv. inhalation – bacterial, viral and fungal
- Define source.
- the location, host, object or substance from which the infectious agent was acquired
- Define symptomatology.
- signs and symptoms expressed by the host. Also referred to as the clinical picture or disease presentation.
- List the five normal stages of Disease Course.
- divided into distinguishable stages after entry of the pathogen. Incubation period, prodromal stage and acute stage, Convalescent period, Resolution.
- Define incubation period.
- the pathogen begins active replication – may be short (hours) or prolonged (6 months – hepatitis)
- Define prodromal stage.
- the initial appearance of symptoms which may be quite vague
- Define acute stage.
- period when the patient experiences the maximum symptoms
- Define Convalescent period.
- characterized by containment of the pathogen and elimination – may last for days, weeks or months
- Define Resolution stage.
- total elimination of the pathogen without residual signs or symptoms of the disease
- Define site of infection.
- Where the symptoms of the infection are primarily located.
- Define virulence factors.
- substances or products that are generated by infectious agents that enhance their ability to cause disease
- Define diagnosis.
- In order to diagnose a pathogen, need to recover the pathogen or find evidence of its presence from the infected site and document of the clinical signs and symptoms
- Define treatment.
- Attempts to rid the organism of the infectious agent.
- Describe genital warts.
- Caused by the human papilloma **virus** - up to 33 different viruses displaying varying virulence to humans
- Describe genital herpes.
- Caused by HVH II **virus**. infections are painful and annoying to adults, but life threatening to fetus or infants.
- Describe gonorrhea.
- causative agent: Neisseria gonorrhoeae **bacteria**. in men, purulent urethritis usually develops. Women are frequently asymptomatic but can also have the same symptoms
- Describe Chlamydia.
- Most commonly transmitted STD. **Bacterial**. People have the disease without knowing
- Describe Syphilis.
- Seen less frequently but more serious STD and occurrence is on the rise. **Bacterial**.
- Briefly summarize the cell cycle.
- G0 – resting phase
Interphase – consists of G1, S and G2
G1 – post-mitosis, DNA synthesis ends, RNA and protein synth, cell growth.
S – DNA synth yields two sets of chromosomes
G2 – pre-mitosis, DNA synthesis ends, RNA and protein synth
M – Mitosis has 3 outcomes:
Non-duplicating cell permanent and no re-entry into G1.
Enter G0 (resting) and then reenter G1
- Define cellular proliferation.
- cell division for reproduction
- Define cell differentiation.
- preset and programmed expression of genes at certain part of cell growth to ‘turn-on’ specific new genes for discrete cell types.
- What is a stem cell?
- incompletely differentiated reserve cells that are quiescent until a need arises.
- Define neoplasia.
- abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth and division.
- Distinguish malignant neoplasia from benign neoplasia.
- Benign – still resemble origin tissue, non-metastasizing, regular borders, semi-encapsulated which usually makes excision easier.
Malignant – do not resemble origin tissue, usually metastasizes, irregular borders, usually leads to death if not treated.
- What is anaplasia?
- loss of differentiation
- What is contact inhibition?
- the normal cessation of cell division and growth caused by physical contact with other cells. This normal end to cell division does not function when cancer is present, resulting in uncontrolled reproduction of cells.
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