Glossary of Part 1 2
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- From DNA to Proteins...
- DNA - sequence of 3 bases encodes 1 single amino acid
RNA - base sequence determines protein building.
Proteins - involved in many body functions!
- Genetic code
- the specific correspondence between a set of 3 DNA bases and 1 amino acid
- Universal Genetic Code
- the same 3 bp sequences specify the same 1 amino acid, regardless of host - bacteria, plant, human, monkey, lion.. Proteins are proteins!
- Where does organism diversity originate?
- Adaptations to prebiotic biochemical processes. Organisms are uniform at the molecular level.
- 3 Domains of ORganisms:
- Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea
-Bacteria was first
-Eukarya came from them,
-Archaea is the youngest
- DNA illustrates...
- relation between function and form
- deoxyribonucleic acid; stores information. 3-dimensional molecule, covalent. A linear polymer made of four different monomer types
- DNA monomer structure
- -Sugar-phosphate backbone
-one of 4 different bases attached to sugar
-Backbone: repeating sugar-phosphate units
- the sugar in the backbone of DNA
- 4 DNA bases - what are they?
- Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine. Each binds to deoxyribose
- The variable in DNA that makes it useful
- Sequence of bases along a DNA strand.
Constitutes the genetic information
- 3-D molecular structure of DNA
- -Double helix
-2 intertwined linear strands
-Sugar-phosphate backbone lies on outside of helix
-Variable bases protrude from helix inward - bind together
- Base Pairs - what's that?
- Specific Hydrogen bonds form between the bases on inside of DNA double helix.
- Hydrogen Bonds - why useful?
- weak enough to be broken when necessary but strong enought to stabilize a double helix for instance. Weaker than covalent bonds.
- Watson and Crick
- Proposed double helical structure
- ribonucleic acid
-structurally similar to DNA but with RIBOSE instead of Deoxyribose
-Single strand, not double helix.
-Complex activity like catalysis because it allows intrastrand b-pairing
- 3 Important roles of RNA
- mRNA - translates/transcribes
rRNA - functions in translation
tRNA - functinos in building proteins
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