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Glossary of Part 1 2

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From DNA to Proteins...
DNA - sequence of 3 bases encodes 1 single amino acid
RNA - base sequence determines protein building.
Proteins - involved in many body functions!
Genetic code
the specific correspondence between a set of 3 DNA bases and 1 amino acid
Universal Genetic Code
the same 3 bp sequences specify the same 1 amino acid, regardless of host - bacteria, plant, human, monkey, lion.. Proteins are proteins!
Where does organism diversity originate?
Adaptations to prebiotic biochemical processes. Organisms are uniform at the molecular level.
3 Domains of ORganisms:
Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea
-Bacteria was first
-Eukarya came from them,
-Archaea is the youngest
DNA illustrates...
relation between function and form
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; stores information. 3-dimensional molecule, covalent. A linear polymer made of four different monomer types
DNA monomer structure
-Sugar-phosphate backbone
-one of 4 different bases attached to sugar
-Backbone: repeating sugar-phosphate units
Deoxyribose
the sugar in the backbone of DNA
4 DNA bases - what are they?
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine. Each binds to deoxyribose
The variable in DNA that makes it useful
Sequence of bases along a DNA strand.
Constitutes the genetic information
3-D molecular structure of DNA
-Double helix
-2 intertwined linear strands
-Sugar-phosphate backbone lies on outside of helix
-Variable bases protrude from helix inward - bind together
Base Pairs - what's that?
Specific Hydrogen bonds form between the bases on inside of DNA double helix.
Hydrogen Bonds - why useful?
weak enough to be broken when necessary but strong enought to stabilize a double helix for instance. Weaker than covalent bonds.
Watson and Crick
Proposed double helical structure
RNA
ribonucleic acid
-structurally similar to DNA but with RIBOSE instead of Deoxyribose
-Single strand, not double helix.
-Complex activity like catalysis because it allows intrastrand b-pairing
3 Important roles of RNA
mRNA - translates/transcribes
rRNA - functions in translation
tRNA - functinos in building proteins

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