Glossary of PYTD505 Exam 1: Models
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- Elaboration Theory
- When structoring a course, material should be presented in a sequence of simple-to-complex steps.
- Gagne's Nine Steps of Instruction
- Nine basic instructional events have variations for the type of learning outcome.
- Component Display Theory (CDT)
- Focuses on the learner's control. Classifies learning into two dimensions: content and peformance. Also identifies four primary and five secondary presentation forms.
- Dick and Carey Design Model
- Focuses on breaking instruction down into a series of steps. Theses steps target the skills/knowledge to be taught and provide appropriate conditons for learning.
- Algo-Heuristic Theory
- Deals with understanding and describing the specific processes and operations of objectives, tasks, and cognitive processes.
- Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.
A step-by-step process that helps training specialists plan and create training programs.
- ARCS model for Motivation
- Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction.
Believes that motivation is key in the learning process.
- Criterion Referenced Instruction
- A comprehensive set of methods for the design and delivery of training programs.
- Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
- Any task stimulates one of the three psychological domains: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor.
- Adavanced Organizers
- Theory in which focus is placed on making connections between old and new material. New material is presented in a simple-to-complex sequence.
- Cone of Experience
- A cone diagram depicting the percentage of what people remember based on how the information was presented and what they're able to do with the material presented.
- Concept Mapping
- Information is placed on a "visual road map" that displays main concepts and their connections to other concepts.
- Information Processing
- Includes "Chunking" and "TOTE", which focus on the fact that the short-term memory has its limitations and information should be presented in such a way that those limiations are respected.
- Theory that believes that there are two cognitive subsystems: one dealing with nonverbal objects/events, and one dealing with language.
- Pavlov / Classical Conditioning
- When a subject is presenting with a stimulus, a response results. It's possible to condition a subject to give a set response to a unrelated stimulus.
- Thorndike / Instrumental Conditioning
- Focuses on the "Law of Effect", which states: all behaviors are learned by trial and error, or reward and punishment.
- Watson / Classical Conditioning (with emotion)
- Learning is strictly based on people's experiences and how they react to them.
- Skinner / Operant Conditioning
- Based on the ABC's: Antecedant, Behavior, and Consequence.
- Action Research
- Describes how humans and organizations behave in the outside world and also helps humans and organizations change and reflect on their own systems.
- Anchored Instruction
- Focuses on creating interesting, realisitic contexts that encourage active contruction of knowledge.
- Theory that states that adults learn differently from youths.
- Cognitive Apprenticeship
- A learner shadows a mentor and learns skills and concepts through their relationship with the mentor.
- Cognitive Flexability
- Learners should be able to readily process and reproscess knowledge to suit various situations.
- Generative Learning
- Focuses on making new knowledge into old knowledge by generating links between the two.
- Computer supported collaborative learning environments.
A computer network that supports groupwork through a shared interface (like WebCT).
- Computer Supported Intentional Learning Enviroments.
A computer network that is specifically designed to function as a learning enviroment where all users contribute. (Like myspace, but with an educational purpose).
- Conversation Theory
- Learning occurs through discussion of the material.
- Discovery Learning
- The "Do-It-Yourself" approach to learning. You're given the materials and a goal, but the process of getting from point A to point B is your job.
- Problem-Based Learning
- Students are placed in an active role of a problem and use their problem-solving skills to learn from the situation.
- Project Based Learning
- Involves projects that are centered on challenging problems or questions.
- Play Learning
- Learners play games or simulations to learn.
- Role Play Learning
- Learners act out roles to develop particular skills and meet learning objectives.
- Instructional Systems Design
- The process that provides a means for the sound decision making to determine the who, what, where, why, when, and how of training.
- 4C/ID Model
- 4 Components/Instructional Design
A process involing learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information and part-task practice ordered by difficulty.
- Organizational Elements Method
- Provides a systematic framework of designing and implementing effective means to achieve desirable end results.
- Rapid Protoyping
- Uses a formative model based on usability testing of protoypes.
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