Glossary of PSYCH 201 Midterm Cards

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Social Psychology
The scientific study of the way in which individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people
Kurt Lewin
-Father of Modern Social Psychology
-Came with the rise in Nazism in Germany and Emigration to the US
-He emphasized practical research to promote change
-Came up with the Interactionist Perspection = person reacts with the situation
Fundamental Attribution Error
-People tend to attribute behavior to characteristics of the person when it's someone else but to characteristics of the environment when talking about themselves
Pure helping behavior
-EX: saving a woman you dont know in an icy cold river
Sociocultural Approach to Social Psychology
-Each culture creates norms about how one is to think, feel, and behave
-Social norms: rules about appropriate behavior
-Culture: set of beliefs, customs, habits, and language shared by people living in a particular time and place
Evolutionary Approach to Social Psychology
-Natural Selection: thought that survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
-Survival of the Fittest: evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
-Adaptation: A change to the genotype in a way that increases an individuals fitness
Social Learning Approach to Social Psychology
-Direct Learning: In class or parents telling us something
-Indirect Learning: Seeing someone get rewarded or punished for something
-Albert Bandura's Bobo Experiment: How children knock an air filled doll after seeing adult do it
Social Cognitive Approach to Social Psychology
-Social Cognition: The way in which people think about themselves and the social world - how they select, interpret, remember, and use social info to make judgments and decisions
Empirical Research
-Based on data and careful study
-Used to learn the mechanisms behind behavior, without relying on common sense or introspection
Formulating Hypotheses and Theories
Experimental -> Correlational (tells you that 2 things are related) -> Descriptive (look at things and describe what is going on)
Descriptive Methods
-Researcher observes people and records measurements or impressions of their behavior
-Ex: Naturalistic Observation, Case Studies, Archival, Surveys, and Psychological Tests
Naturalistic Observation
-Observing in a natural setting without them knowing
Case Studies
Study one person or one event and find out everything you can about it
-Get info that's already available to you - like Police Reports, etc
-Ask people a lot of Q's about what you want to know
Correlations: Predicting Social Behavior
-Calculate the degree of association btw variables
-Goal is PREDICTION by understanding relationships btw variables
Correlational Coefficients
-1.0 - +1.0
-Sign indicates the direction of the relationship
-Positive - When both variables increase or decrease together
-Negative - When A increases, B decreases
--1.0 or +1.0 = perfect relationship
-0.0 = no relationship
3rd Variable
-Affects both other variables and is the reason for some correlation
Correlation is NOT Causation
-Because of 3rd Variables and Reverse Causation
Role of Research in Science
-Theory -> Test it -> Replicate it -> Accept Theory as True
-A set of principles that explain a set of observations
-Usually indicates specific causation
-Has to be supported by data to be considered true
-Identical non-test related conditions for both groups allows us to isolate the variable of interest
Random Assignment
-Ensures that all extraneous variables exist evenly in both groups
-Can improve Internal Validity
Random Selection
-Everyone in the poputlation you wish to apply your results to has an equal chance of participating in the study
-Ensures that your sample is representative of the population
-Ensures External Validity
External Validity
-Ability of a study to accurately generalize the sample to the population
Psychological Realism
-The extent to which the study itself makes you psychologically involved in the experiment
Hawthorne Effect
-People change their behavior when they know they're being studied
Independent Variable
-The variable that is changed to see if it has an effect on some other variable
Dependent Variable
-The variable measured by the researcher to see if it depends on the level of the independent variable
Between-Participants Design
-Looks for differences between different people
Within-Participants Design
-Looks for differences within the same people
-Each participant takes part in every condition of the study
Mixed Model Design
-Has multiple factors involved - looks both within and btw participant differences depending on the factor
-Has 2 independent variables
-ANalysis Of Variance
-Used to test for differences btw the means of groups of participants
-Shows these differences:
-Main effects: if the 2 means differ around 1 main independent variable
-Interactions: involve 2 or more independent variables- try to see if the influence of one independent variable affects the 2nd ind. variable
Interaction Effects
-Look at the effect of a particular combination of factors
-One variable qualifies the relationship btw the other variables
-When one variable "explains" the relationship btw the other variables
Single-Factor Experiments
-Have one independent variable
Factorial Design
-Have 2 or more independent variables
-2-way design
Informed Consent
-Specifies the nature of the experiment and gets permission
-Needed to avoid "giving away" the purpose of the experiment
-Tells the participants what they're going to do, but not why
-Explains everything, alleviates discomfort from the experiment, makes things right again
-When you tell them after the Deception
Experience Sampling Methods (ESM)
-Uses signaling devices to alert participant to record their data
-Allows continuous and random data collection
-Used often for attitude research, or emotions
Social Cognition
The way we think about the world and ourselves
-Core Processes:
Goals Behind Social Cognition
-Being Accurate
-Conserving Mental Effort
-Managing our self-image
-A tool used to interpret things around us
-Used for identifying or categorizing things
-Helps us decide how to interact with our environment
-Keeps us from having to reinterpret the world around us constantly
-A mental shortcut to help us remember things
Self Fulfilling Prophecy
-Have a Stereotype
-Act in a way consistent with that belief
-Create stereotypical behavior because of your actions
-Your expectations fulfill your actions
Representative Heuristic
-The tendency to classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
-We classify things according to how well they fit into a category we already know about
-Prevents us from using better info like base rates
Availability Heuristic
-People tend to make judgments based on info that is most easily brought to mind
-EX: elephant/denmark trick
Anchoring Heuristic
-People tend to use a generic starting point and then adjust slightly from there when making decisions
-EX: bargaining at a flea market
Reconstructive Memory
-Recalling What Never Happened
-Memory is changeable and we change it over time
Illusory Correlation
-The belief that 2 variables are realted to one another when they're not
-EX: horoscopes or Hot Hand
-We believe in them because we are more likely to notice when our expectations are confirmed than when they're not
Clustering Illusion
-When things happen in runs people believe that they couldnt have happened by chance
-OOXXXXOOXO = more real chance than XOXOXOXOXOXOX
-First studied memory and came up with schemas
-Did the 'War of the Ghosts' experiment
-People remember the most salient things and then exaggerate them
Hindsight Bias
-The "i knew it all along" phenomenon
-The tendency to overestimate the predictability of known outcomes after the fact
Perseverence Effect
-The tendency to make self-evaluations that are consistent with info we are given, wven when we learn that info was false
-We are biased in our analysis of ourselves
-Is related to the concept of availability
-Is often applied to our assessment of our own abilities
Counterfactual Thoughts
-Reflections on how past events may have turned out differently
Upward Counterfactuals
-Thinking about how events could have turned out better
Downward Counterfactuals
-Thinking about how events could have turned out worse
False Consensus Effect
-The tendency to assume that other people share our own attitudes and behaviors to a greater extent than is actually the cas
Display Rules
-Norms in a culture for how and when emotions should be expressed
-Ex: facial expressions
Attribution Theory
-Examines how we answer why an event or behavior occured
-Person/Situation paradigm comes into play here
-inernal (person) vs. external (situation)
Kelley's Covariation Model of Attribution
-We analyze whether a behavior is correlated with internal factors, external factors, or a combo of both when deciding why the behavior occured
-People are "intuitive scientists" when trying to make attributional decisions
-Makes us analyze: Consensus, Distinctiveness, and Consistency
-Do other people do this behavior?
-Does this person do this behaviro in other situations?
-Does this person consistently do this behavior in this situation?
Discounting Principle
-If we can see an external cause for behaviors, we reduce the perceived importance of internal causes for that behavior
-EX: Internal or External Attribution
Augmenting Principle
-The perceived role of a cause in producing behavior will be increased (or augmented) when other causes (that should work against the behavior) are present
Correspondence Bias
-Overestimate the effect of internal factors and underestimate the role of situational factors
-EX: bad drivers
Cultural Context
-May influence the correspondence bias
-Individualism vs Collectivism of the people and media
Actor/Observer Difference
-We tend to focus on dispositional (internal) causes
Perceptual Salience
-Focus on the individual in other's behaviors for individual cultures but focus on situation in our own behaviors because we dont want to see flaws
Social Comparison
-We use others as a means of judging our own abilities
-Normally we use appropriate comparisons, but not always
Upward Social Comparison
-Comparing ourselves to someone who is better off than we are on a given dimension
-Comparing to professionals/celebrities
Relative Deprivation
-A feeling of resentment about our outcomes based on comparisons with better-off others
Downward Social Comparison
-Comparing ourselves to someone who is worse off than we are on a given dimension
Self-Perception Theory
-We use our own behavior to infer our internal states, including likes, dislikes, attitudes, beliefs...
-"i'm eating pistachio ice cream; i must like it"
Overjustification Effect
-Our preference towards something that is already intrinsically rewarding can be reduced by adding an extrinsic reward
-Adding a good grade to the best picture colored by kids can make it less fun
The Looking Glass Self
-Our self-concept is made in party by our understanding of how others see us - smart, generous, cautious...
Self Serving Judgments
-Perceptions or comparisons that enhance the perceived worth of the self
Bias Blindspot
-The tendency to think that biases and errors are more common in others than in ourselves
Above Average Effect
-On Average, people think they are better than average for positive traits
Unrealistic Optimism
-On average, people think they are more likely to experience good outcomes and are less likely to experience bad things than the average person
-When people cant look outside of what happens to them
-The belief that we are capable of performing a particular behavior that is required for a certain goal
Illusion of Control
-The tendency to overestimate our control of situations and events - like choosing lottery tickets
Self Discrepancy Theory
-Looks at what happens when our self-views conflict
-Discrepancy btw actual and ideal leads to depression and sadness
-Discrepancy btw actual and ought leads to guilt
Actual Self
-How people believe they really are
Ideal Self
-How people would ideally like to be
Ought Self
-How people think they ought to be
-Strategically presenting ourselves in different ways to achieve a positive perception in the eyes of others
-To get others to like us or respect us
-Change your behavior to act like those you like
-Brown-nosing, verbal flattery...
Creating Similarity
-We tend to like people who are similar to us in looks, attitudes, etc
-It can be subconscious
-Opinion Conformity
Multiple Audience Dilemma
-The problem faced when trying to appear likeable to multiple audiences at the same time
-We manage it by:
-Segregating the audience
-Moderating our presentations
Staging Performance
-We seek opportunities to demonstrate our competance
-EX: hosting a book club to impress Princeton Grad
Claiming Competece (brag)
-Simply saying things to seem confident
-They are not always tolerated
-Someone working with the experiment that fakes the hoped result of the experiment
-The tendency to seek or create obstacles in order to have an explanation in the case of potential failure
-EX: drinking 32 beers before a test
Detecting Deception Accuracy
-It is not easy
-Only slightly over chance for all but Secret Service Agents (64%)
-Consistencies across time and settings in people
-Like traits - enduring individual differences
-Quiet, introverted, loud...
Self Concept
-The info about ourselves that resides in memory
-Formed through social comparison and self-perception
-The collection of important concepts that define an individual
Spontaneous Self-Concept
-The collection of aspects of identity that are available to awareness at any time
-Priming these aspects brings them to the forefront of consciousness
-Distinctiveness of an identity trait in a given solution makes that aspect of identity salient
Social Identity
-Beliefs and feelings we have toward the groups to which we see ourselves belonging (ingroup)
-Groups that you belong to: family, school, etc
-Groups you dont belong to: other schools, or other families
Social Identity Theory
-Addresses our identification with a group and the benefits we derive from it
-Basking In Reflected Glory - of those in our ingroup
-Like Bruce Weber
-Cutting Off Reflected Failure
-Like Ron Zook - no self esteem to be gained there
Minimal Intergroup Paradigm
-Experimental procedure in which short-term, arbitrary, artificial groups are created to explore foundations of prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination
-EX: Students give preferential treatment to others who they believe share irrelevant traits - even if random
Optimal Distinctiveness Theory
-Examines how we strike a balance btw similarity (with an ingroup) and distinctiveness (as an individual)
-We over compensate to show that we are diff sometimes
-Collectivistic people will identify themselves at least 50% with their groups
-Individualistic people identify themselves by their traits
Self Esteem
-Liking for the self
=A disposition - people's judge of their own worthiness
-Sources are: personal experience, reflected appraisal by others relationships, social comparison, and group comparison
Correlates of Self-Esteem
-People with high SE typically have more certain self views
-Peopls with high SE engage in self-serving judgments
-People with high SE are happier than those with low
-People with high SE have greater satisfaction with their personal relationships
-(But the 2nd two have no causation)
-Represents an exaggerated love of the self
-People with secure high SE confidently hold positive self views
-People with defensive high SE hold positive self-vies that are fragile and vulnerable to threat
Gender Behavior
-To save time, we often sharpen the distinctions btw groups and soften the differences within groups
-We assume stereotypes are sharper than they actually are
-Clearest gender difference is for homocide
-There are biological explanations and Cultural explanations
Self Monitoring
-Individual differences in relying on external or internal cues to guide behavior
-Person who is always the same across situations = low
-Person who changes everything with the situation = high
Need For Cognition
-People with high think a lot and need to know how things work
-People with low think less and dont care how it works as long as it does
Acheivement Motivation
-Individual differences in performance goals
-Test it with the Thematic Apperception Test
Thematic Apperception Test
-Show people a sense of ambiguous pictures and the subject has to write a series of stories about the pictures which are analyzed for themes
-People project what they're thinking about to the people in the pictures
Uncertainty Orientation
-Individual differences in learning new things about oneself
-People with high Uncertainty Orientation ask Q's to get rid of uncertainty of their ability
-People with high Certainty Orientation knew what was inside them and didnt need clarification
Dispositional Optimism
-Associated with lower distress in several areas
-Intelligence is positively correlate with health and longevity
-An individual's evaluation of a target
-They are:
-Affective: our feelings or beliefs toward the attitude target
-Behavioral: our intention to act towards the target, on our memory of our past behavior towards it
-Cognitive: our knowledge of the attitude target
Ambivalent Attitudes
-Attitudes that include both positive and negative elements
-EX: ice cream tastes so good but cognitive says it makes you fat
Object Appraisal
-Attitudes provide us with a quick evaluation of an object, allowing us to decide hot to act towards it (approach vs avoid)
-Attitudes help us communicate info about ourselves and our beliefs
Mere Exposure Effect
-Our attitude towards a target can be made more positive by merely being frequently exposed to it
Attitudes Come From
-Learning: exposure, conditioning, knowlege evaluation, behavior evaluation
-Socialization: parents, reference groups
Affective Response
-Attitude targets that consistently CAUSE positive or negative feelings will be evaluated as being either positive or negative
-EX: rainbows, garbage, sushi
Evaluative Conditioning
-Attitude targets that are ASSOCIATED with positive or negative feelings will be evaluated as being either positive or negative
-EX: pavlov's dog, wheelchairs...
Knowledge Evaluation
-Our cognitive understanding of and beliefs about a target, how it operates, and what it means affects our attitude toward it
-EX: drillin in the arctic
Behavior Evaluation
-Our knowledge of how we have behaved towards a target IN THE PAST
influences our attitude toward it
-EX: seat belts
Heredity in Attitudes
Genes can cause certain circumstances that might lead us to hold a specific attitude
-But there is not always causation btw them
Explicit Attitudes
-Those that we are conscious of or able to express
-Accessed using self-report measures
Implicit Attitudes
-Exist below consciousness, cannot be verbally expressed
Liker-Type Scales
-Respondent indicates the extent to which he/she agrees or disagrees with a series of statements
-Stongly disagree <--> Strongly agree
Thurstone Scales
-Respondent indicates which statements, both positive and negative, he/she agrees with - does not assess degree the way people feel
Socially Desirable Responding
-Respondents sometimes respond to such measures in a way they think is socially appropriate rather than in a way that honestly reflects their true attitude
-EX: attitudes towards people with disabilities
Implicit Association Test
-Measures implicit attitudes by recording reaction times
-Online test with pictures and response time
Info Processing
-How we perceive the world and how we interpret the info we receive
Selective Perception
-We pay attention to and remeber the things that are consistent with our attitudes
-Our attitudes are very useful in predicting our behavior
Attitude Strength
-Strongly held attitudes are better predictors of behavior
-4 Parts:
-Direct Experience
Compatability Principle
-The measure of attitude and the measure of behavior have to match in terms of specificity/generality in order for the attitude measure to predict the behavior
-General attitudes with General behaviors
-Specific attitudes with Specific behaviors
Fishbein and Azjen's Theory of Reasoned Action
-Behavior is preceded by behavioral intentions, intentions to perform a behavior
-If you wanted to change a behavior, you could try to change the behavioral intentions
-Later changed to Theory of Planned Behavior with the addition of perceived behavioral control
Behavior Model
Attitude + Subjective Norm + Perceived Behavioral Control --> Behavioral Intention --> Behavior
Social Psychologist
-People interested in how other people affect every aspect of indivdual's lives, including thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
-Study how individuals process info about other people and how they store this info in memory
-They take the perspective of individuals in a social setting rather than focusing only on objective features of the situation
-An approach in psychology which assumes that behavior can be explained purely in terms of stimulus-response connections established through experience and reinforcement
Gestalt Theory
-An approach in psychology which assumes that people’s overall, subjective interpretations of objects are more important than the object’s physical features, and that objects are perceived in their totality, as a unit, rather than in terms of their individual features
Social Contract
-The idea that human societies have developed basic rules of social and moral conduct, which members of the societies implicitly agree to follow
First Sociologist and Psychologist Textbook writers

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