Glossary of PSYCHOLOGY 3480
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- What are the four aspects of the Process of Aging?
- 1. Aging is complex and multidimensional
3. Aging is ongoing and dynamic.
4. The multicausal nature of aging.
- What are the 5 dimensions of aging?
- 1. Sensory perceptual
- Describe the Sensory Perceptual dimension.
- Vision, hearing.
- Describe the biophysiological dimension.
- Major body systems and function.
- Describe the Cognitive/intellectual dimension.
- Memory, intelligence, processing speed
- Describe the personal-interpersonal dimension.
- How you feel about yourself and how it affects family and friends.
- Describe the culture-environmental dimension.
- Job performance, age appropriate, ethnicity.
- What does the person-environment aspect of the aging process denote?
- To successfully adapt, age, and cope, and individual must continually match their skills to the demands of the environment, which is also changing.
- What is the multidirectional aspect of change?
- Some abilities will increase with age, some with decrease, and some will be the same.
- What is Birren's Theory of Aging?
- Idea is that each of these types of ages are though to be separate from one another, meaning that they don't necessarily affect one another.
- Describe Birren's Biological Age.
- - Condition of the individual's organ and body systems.
- Theoretical lifespan of organism (potential life span)
- Most say similar to chronological age.
- Describe Birren's Social Age.
- - Developmental tasks
- Expectancies in terms of acquiring specific skills, behaviors, and activities.
- Provide us with a system of age appropriate behaviors and activities.
-Ex: Someone who is chronologically 80 years of age may have habits, attitudes of someone younger.
- Describe Birren's psychological Age.
- Adaptive capacity of an individual.
- What is Levinson's age criteria?
- A. Classifies the periods of the adult life cycle into early adulthood (17-45 years), middle adulthood (40-65 years), and late adulthood (60+years).
B. The 5-year span (ages 40-45) thus serves as a mid-life transition” during which the stage of the middle adulthood begins.
- VI. What are the differences between individual and intraindividual differences?
- A. Individual differences
1. Differences between individuals in any ability or characteristic.
2. Ex: If your hair color is black, and your spouse’s is brown.
B. Intraindividual differences
1. Differences among traits, behaviors, abilities, or performance lives within a specific individual at any point in time.
2. Ex: The differences among grades for the various courses you are taking this term.
- What is optimal aging?
- -AKA healthy aging
-Agiing of individuals who have no identified physical illness.
- What are the causes of change in adulthood?
- 1. Age normative
- Describe the age normative cause of change in adulthood.
- -Factors that are general to the process of development and are highly related to chronological age.
- Describe the history cause of change in adulthood.
- a. Events that occur at a specific point in time (day, month, or year) and theoretically affect everyone in that society or culture.
b. Ex: war, depressions, AIDS, baby boomer, generation X
- Describe the non-normative cause of change in adulthood.
- a. Factors that are not related to age or history but still affect specific individuals during the life span. These factors cannot be attributed to the normal process of development or to the impact of historical change events.
b. Ex: having an accident, winning the lottery, becoming seriously ill
- What is the difference between internal and external factors?
- A. Internal factors
1. Genetically preprogrammed instinctual behaviors or traits
2. Ex: Gender, ethnicity, health condition
B. External factors
1. Aspects of the environment or culture continuously influence and in turn are influenced by each other.
2. Ex: Nutrition and diet, climate, physical environs, exercise/activity, education and eco status, work and work satisfaction, cognitive factors, interpersonal relationships
Note: Both factors affect the course of development, and both are constantly changing and being changed by each other.
- What are transitions in adulthood?
- A. Transitions are important developmental events in adulthood.
a. Based on individual choice
b. Example: Leaving home, changing jobs
a. When the unexpected happens
b. Ex: Winning the lottery, being fired
a. When the expected does not happen
b. Ex: Never being promoted
4. Life on Hold
a. Transitions waiting to happen
b. Ex: Long, long engagement
a. Transitions that you do not realize have started
b. Ex: Becoming overweight
a. When it never rains, but it POURS
b. Ex: Retiring and losing your spouse, having a baby and developing a serious illness.
a. When reached, confer certain legal rights or responsibilities
b. Ex: Getting to vote at 18, or retiring at 65
- What are the four age-related changes in the musculoskeletal system (4)?
- 1. Muscle strength
2. Muscle mass
3. Muscle tone
4. Redistribution of fat and subcutaneous tissue
- What is the difference between arteriosclerosis and arthrosclerosis?
- 1. Atherosclerosis
a. Result of heart disease causing a progressive NARROWING of the arterial walls.
a. Result of heart disease causing a progressive HARDENING of the arterial walls.
- What abilities are the left and right hemispheres control?
- 1. Left hemisphere
a. Controls speech, language and verbal activity, and mathematical and symbolic skills
2. Right hemisphere
a. Controls spatial and complex perceptual abilities.
b. Declines at a greater rate with age.
- What happens if you have a decreased number of neurotransmitters in the brain?
- 1. Translating brain’s message into action takes longer.
2. Synaptic coordination and transmission are impaired.
- What is premature ejaculation?
- Absence of voluntary control of ejaculation.
- What are primary and secondary aging?
- 1. Primary Aging
a. Result of biophysiological processes
b. Are experienced by everyone
c. Example: aches and pains
2. Secondary Aging
a. Due to inactivity, poor eating habits, or disease
b. These changes may affect some people and not others
c. Example: heart disease, cancer
- What are the effects of neuron loss?
- With age, hard clusters of damaged or dying neurons (senile plaques) are more likely to form—leading to inadequate supply of nutrients to brain cells.
- What happens to the immune system with age?
- 1. It starts decline at about age 30.
2. Makes it harder for body to fight off illnesses.
3. At about 65, body loses effectiveness in fighting of bacteria and viruses.
4. The body’s defense system is less coordinated.
- What are the pathological changes in memory (meaning, result)?
- 1. Changes due to the effects of disease and injury.
2. Examples: Alzheimer’s disease or multi-infarct dementia
- Describe registration.
- a. Refers to whether the material is literally heard or seen, i.e., its size or loudness exceeds sensory threshold.
b. Prerequisite for further processing of such information.
- Describe encoding.
- a. Refers to the process of giving meaning to information after it has been registered and has entered the sensory store.
b. Example: creating a rhyme or image to recall things reflects this.
- Describe storage.
- Information, having been encoded in some form, is then organized in a hierarchic (general-to-specific) pattern, where general categories are first created, within which more specific categories are developed.
- Describe retrieval.
- “Getting out” the information that presumably has been registered, encoded and stored.
- What is metamemory?
- Beliefs about, and estimates of our memory skills.
- Describe the four components of metamemory.
- a. Memory self-efficacy- the confidence one has in his or her memory skills
b. Memory management- the strategies and techniques one uses to make best use of one’s memory
c. Memory remediation- the efforts we make to improve our memories
d. Memory fears – concerns about memory loss that affect us personally
- What is the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence?
- 1. Fluid learning
a. Measured by tasks in which relatively little advantage comes from intensive or extensive education.
b. Thought to increase and then decline over lifespan (fluctuates).
2. Crystallized learning
a. Reflects more organized, systematic, acculturated learning (provided by certain institutions).
b. Should generally increase or remain stable over adult years.
- What is the “tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon?
- The inability to recall information that you KNOW has already been previously stored.
- What is the “classic pattern of aging”?
- 1. A pattern in intelligence. . .where a decline in performance scores, relative to stability in verbal scores is seen.
2. Age-related declines in verbal and performance intelligence among people 60 or older.
- What affects intelligence in adulthood?
- 1. Sensory deficits (hearing, vision)
2. Physical and mental health (tend to perform worse on a measure of fluid ability)
- those who are higher educated tend to age less, intellectually speaking
- those with adaptive personalities age better intellectually, or intelligence may permit more flexibility in adulthood
- belief in one’s ability to perform a task successfully
- those with positive self-efficacy perceive difficult tasks as challenges, see failure as related to effort, and thus, under their control. They are less stressed, and age better.
- Describe pragmatic vs. mechanic intelligence. Who tends to outperform in each?
a. Reflects more organized systems of knowledge (older outperform younger).
b. Ex: Social intelligence, wisdom
c. More applied or adaptive and thus reflects intelligent behavior in a specific context or situations.
a. Basic cognitive skills such as speeded performance.
b. More structural and involve basic skills.
c. Ex: logic, information processing, and problem solving.
d. Younger outperform older.
- What is the difference between recall and recognition?
- 1. Recognition: Asking individuals to recall information with the help of retrieval cues
b. Might suggest problems w/encoding and storage.
2. Recall: Asking individuals to recall what they can WITHOUT retrieval cues.
a. essay, short answer
b. Retrieval problems
- What is a cross-sectional design?
- The study of different people of different ages at one time.
- K. What are the three metacomponents of intelligence (examples from class!)?
- 1. Executive processes
2. Performance components
3. Knowledge acquisition.
- Describe executive processes.
- Enable us to plan what we are going to do, monitor it while we are doing it, and evaluate it after it is done.
- Describe performance components.
- 1. More specific to the task.
2. The actual mental operations themselves people use to solve specific problems.
3. Ex: encoding, making inferences, making comparisons
- Describe knowledge acquisition.
- a. Combining specific bits of information into a new “whole” are aspects of knowledge acquisition.
b. Helps us gain new knowledge.
c. Ex: Separating new versus old, relevant from irrelevant, being able to form new knowledge by combining specific bits of information into a new “whole”
- A. What is the difference between role strain, role transition, role change, and role overload?
- 1. Role transition.
a. The process of evolving from one form of a specific role to another form of that same role.
b. Ex: father to grandfather
2. Role change
a. Involves the complete shift from one type of a role to a different one.
b. Ex: husband to widower
3. Role strain
a. A feeling of anxiety and tension as a result of having less than enough time to fulfill each of one’s roles
4. Role overload
c. The demands of one or more of one’s roles exceeds the person’s capacity to meet the demands of these roles.
d. Ex: having little time to care for a chronically ill child and working in a time consuming occupation
- What are the different attachment types (define and know role in socializing)?
- 1. Secure
a. An expectation about social relationships characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned, and a feeling of being valued and well-liked.
a. Sometimes called ambivalence.
b. An expectation about social relationships characterized by a concern that others will not return affection.
a. Characterized by a lack of trust and suppression of attachment needs.
- What is the course of sibling relationships through age?
- 1. It depends on gender and age.
2. Feelings of closeness increase with age, while conflicts dissipate but may reoccur in some situations such as inheritance.
3. Siblings turn to each other for advice about job decisions, romantic relationships, family issues, etc.
- Define dual-earner families.
- 1. Families which both the husband and wife are employed in jobs outside the home.
2. Women more stressed about parenting and family-career conflict.
3. Men more concerned about their wives earning more money.
4. Women more accommodating than men.
5. Couples with more traditional sex-role attitudes tend to experience more stress.
- What are the three types of dual-earner families (describe)?
- a. High status
- Housework division more equal
- Greatest role overload
- Lower levels of love and marital satisfaction
- More marital conflict of all three groups.
b. Low status
- Lowest amount of role overload and marital conflict
- Highest scores of marital satisfaction and love for their spouse
- Husbands are in the primary position, with higher prestige.
- Women have less education and more household responsibilities.
- What type of relationship is marital satisfaction?
- 1. Curvilinear.
2. Peaks before getting children and after they leave home.
- What are the four forms of spousal abuse?
- 1. Psychological abuse.
2. Property abuse.
3. Physical abuse.
4. Sexual abuse.
- What are the three reasons why men abuse their wives (describe) ?
- 1. Patriarchal privilege
2. Social learning theory
3. Attachment dysfunction.
- What are the effects of divorce?
- 1. One of the partners feel failure and rejection.
2. Loss of finances, social networks and support, social roles, self-concept, and material possessions such as housing automobiles.
3. Loss of finances can lead to decrease of standard of living.
4. Stressors associated with divorce.
a. Contacts with former spouse.
b. Parent-child interactions.
c. Interpersonal relations.
e. Everyday practical problems (cleaning, transporting kids).
f. Financial problems.
- What affects a child’s response to remarriage?
- 1. Age
- Adjustment longer for older children.
- Experience pain and anger, all ages.
- Those temperamental and less adaptable children are likely to be the target of criticism, anger, or anxiety on the part of the parent and stepparent, and they are less able to cope with the situation.
- Negative aspects of divorce, life in a single-parent family, and remarriage are more pervasive for girls than for boys.
- How do to lesbians and gays perceive social support?
- Gay and lesbian couples generally perceive less social support from family members.
- What is the patriarchal privilege?
- Sociopolitical structures and attitudes that support male to female violence.
- What is the social learning theory?
- Processes through which observed behaviors become incorporated into the behavioral repertoire of the spousally violent men.
- What is attachment dysfunction?
- Intrapsychic sequences of disturbances in early attachment processes.
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