Glossary of PE Midterms

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changes glucose into energy
whole grain cereals
essential in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
milk products
green vegetables
essential in metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates
necessary for production of red blood cells
keeps eyes moist
essential for normal bone and tooth development
essential for blood clotting
builds and maintains bones and teeth
dairy products
leafy vegetables
necessary for cellular respiration
dried fruits
regulates fluid and acid-base balance in the body
table salt
protects against infection
citrus fruits
What are the functions of water?
1) helps digestive system break down foods into molecules the body can use
2) transport nutrients to cells
3) transport waste away from cells
4) maintain stable body temperature
body composition
all of the tissues that together make up the body
basal metabolism
the amount of energy the body uses just to keep living
a heat unit that refers to the energy available in food and the energy used by body activities
a type of indigestible carbohydrate
How many cups of water does your body lose a day? How many should you drink a day?
loses 10 cups, drink 8 cups
What percent of fruits and vegetables is water? Meat and poultry? Grain Products?
fruits/vegetables: 75-80%
meat/poultry: 50-65%
grain products: 5-35%
What are the effects of dehydration on physical performance?
2% loss of body weight- impairs cooling system
3%- reduced muscular endurance
4-6%- reduced muscular strength, heat cramps
>6%- severe heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, coma, death
What is the function of vitamins?
To repair and grow body cells
How do fat soluble vitamins work?
Absorbed and transported in fat. Any excess amt stored in fat cells
How do water soluble vitamins work?
Dissolve in water in blood and are carried to cells. Cannot be stored in the body
What are the functions and sources of fiber?
1. moves waste through digestive system
2. prevents constipation on intestinal problems
3. reduces risk of some cancers
bran, whole wheat bread, popcorn
What are the functions of fat?
1. cushions organs to prevent injury
2. insulates body to conserve energy
3. transports fat soluble vitamins
4. stored form of energy
5. helps satisfy hunger longer because it takes longer to digest
What are the different types of fats?
Saturated fat- solid at room temperature
Unsaturated fat- liquid at room temperature
Trans fats
Where do saturated and unsaturated fats come from?
Saturated- animals
Unsaturated- plants
What are essential amino acids?
amino acids the body does not produce. from foods you eat
What are complete and incomplete proteins?
complete proteins- foods that contain all the essential amino acids
incomplete proteins- foods that contain some but not all the essential amino acids
What are the functions of proteins?
to build, repair, and maintain body cells
What are the 6 classifications of nutrients? Which ones have calories and which ones don't?
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (calories)
vitamins, minerals, and water (no calories)
How many calories should a teenage girl have a day?
approx. 2200
How many calories should a teenage boy have a day?
approx. 2800
How much of one's diet should be carbs? fat? protein?
carbs- 50-65%
fat- no more than 30%
protein- 10-15%
What are the functions of nutrients?
1) supply energy
2 ) build, repair, and maintain body tissues
3) regulated body processes
What are simple carbohydrates?
milk- lactose
What is glycogen
a more compact form of glucose stored in the liver and muscles
What are minerals?
Inorganic substances that your body cannot produce that performe vital functions in the body

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