Glossary of Organic and inorganic Chemistry Chapters 2 and 3

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a chemical bond formed between ions with opposite charges and are held together by an electrical charge; the electrons are usually exchanges
ionic bond
a type of chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons
covalent bond
a charged atom that has lost or gained electrons giving them a positive or negative charge
a compound that yields hydroxide ions when dissolved in water it is a solution with great concentration of OH ions
a compound that ionizes to release hydrogen ions in water and has a great concentration of H ions
a standard measurement of the concentraion of hydrogen ions in a solution and determines acidity
pH scale
the smallest particle of an element that has properties of an element
a substance that cannot be brtoken down by chemical processes into simialar substance and is composed if one type of atom
two or more elements chemically combined im definite proportions and the ration is always the same
a substance composed if two or more componentseach of which retains its owmn properties nad can be separated by physical means
the smallest particle of a substance that has chemical properties and is composed of two or more atoms usually bonded covalently
a substance tha occupies space and has a mass
one of several aoms of hte same element that has the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
a change in which the makeup of a substance is changed and has a completly new substance and compound
chemical chnge
a change in which the physical property and appearance is changed
physical change
why is water such a good solvent
what is a polar substance and has a slightly negative and positive charge so it attract ions and breaks up ionic bonds and also dissolves polar substances
A comound is considered organic if it contains .....
what is the order in which the body get thier energy from and in clude the amount of calories/ gram is released in each group
Carbs- 4.5 cal/ gram
lipids- 9 cal/ grams
proteins 4.5 cal/ gram
list an example of a positive and negative ion and why it is positive or negative ion
positive- sodium ion has more positive atoms and gave up electrons
negative- chlorine ion has more electrons then protons
which side tend to lose or gain electroms
left- lose
right - gain
list four characteristice of the carbon atom
1. it has 4 covalent bonds
2. it can combine itself many times
3. can form a bond with h, O, n
4. makesup biological compunds
what are the monomers if carbohydrates/
Ex. glucose
what are polomers of carbohydrate
peptotides starch cellulose smylose chitin
wgat is a monomer od Lipids
Fatty acids glycerol
What is a polomer of lipids
What is a monomer of a protein
amino acid
What is a polomer of a protein
polypeptide chains dipeptide
are saturated fat liquid or solid at room temperature
solid because of no Carbon double bonds
are mono,poly, and unsaturated at liqiud or solid at room temperature
liquid a c double bonds
what is the use a carbs
fuel building material receptors
what is lipid s used for
energy storage cushions for organs insulation
what are proteins used fir
structures enzymes antibodies transport movement
hwat is an element defined as a pure substance because it is made only frome one kind of ...
in an atom with the same nuber of electrons and protons the electrical charge is ...
Atoms bond with other atoms because...
bonding helps atoms become more stable
when a group of atoms is held together by covalent bonds...
an ion is formed
ionice bonds occur between
two nonpolar molecule
carbohydrates are associated with what
disaccharide, polysaccahride steriod
the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical means
a substance made only of one kind of atom
a substance made when atoms of two or more different elements join together
an attraction between subataces of the same kind
a class of orgainic compounds made of carbon hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a 1:2: ration
a measure of concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
solid at room temp
saturated fatty acid
an atom with more elections than protons would have a
positive charge
The weak chemical attraciton between water molecules is a
hydrogen bond
the stronger chemical bond betweein the atoms of each water molecule is
covalent bond
An atom or molecule that has gained or lost aone or more electrons is called
an ion
on the pH scale vinegar is an
ammonia is a
two carbohydrates that store energy are
starch and glycogen
the major class of carbon compounfd are nonpolar is
ex. lipids
fats triglceridse waxes phopholipids
a monosaccharide consist of what nad belongs in what group
sugar base
phophate group
when sodioum choloride is dissolved in water a chemical reaction occure in which sodioun cloride is the and sodioum ions and chloride ions are the reactant
a type of protein theat reduces the activation energy of a chemical reaction
used a energy first
are organic molecules
contain C,O,N, and H,
contain C, O, H
Carb and lipids
dehydration synthesis
4.5 cal/gram
carbs/ proteins
used as energy second
monomers and monosaccharides
used as energy third
monomer are amino acids
molecules that have the samenumber of atoms and same kind of atoms a different arrangement of the atoms
example of isomers
glucose fructose galactose
ex. carbs
sugar starches cellulose and related substances
nonpolar substance no dissoleve in water
make up silk hair tendons
act as hormones
one sugar two sugar many sugar
1- monosaccharide
long chains of mnosaccharide joined together
poly saccahride
made up of amylose
.a process by which the bonc between monomers are broken by hte enzyme add water
a process in which water is remover
dehydrartion synthereses
composed i 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol

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