Glossary of Organic and Biochemistry Review

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these 92 naturally occuring substances make up all matter on earth
the smallest quantity of an element that still exhibits the characteristics of that element
the negatively charged particles that make up atoms and surround its nucleus
the positively charged particles that are located within the nucleus of an atom
the neutral charged particles that are located in the nucleus of an atom
an atom that contains a larger or smaller number of neutrons than usual
an atom or molecule that has lost or gained an electron and consequently has a negative or positive charge
bonds formed through the more or less equal sharing of electrons between atoms
covalent bonds
covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally
nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which one atom pulls the shared electrons toward itself more
polar bond
this type of bond occurs when one atom pulls the shared electrons away from the other atom entirely
ionic bond
a weak bond between hydrogen and a set of other elements, including oxygen
hydrogen bonds
the process by which atoms give their electrons up instead of sharing them
solutions high in hydrogen ions
solutions high in hydroxide ions
solutions that resist changes in pH even when acids or bases are added
each of the repeating units that make up a polymer
a large molecule consisting of the same or similar units attached in a series, forming a chain
a common biochemical rxn in which a new compound is formed by the joining of 2 compounds to release water;occurs in the synthesis of polysaccharides and polypeptides;the reverse of hydrolysis
dehydration synthesis
a common biochemical rxn in which the bond b/w 2 molecules is split by the addition of a water molecule;process that breaks down polymers and dimers;reverse of dehydration synthesis
compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about 1:2:1;often sugars which provide energy for cellular processes;names most often end in "ose"
carbohydrate monomers
the sugar most often found in fruits; a monosaccharide
a sugar used as the major source of energy for cellular activities; a monosaccharide
carbohydrate dimers
carbohydrate polymers
the form that polysaccharides take in plants
the form that polysaccharides take in animals
make up more than half of the organic compounds in cells;play an important function in almost every cellular process
biological catalysts made from proteins
a protein monomer
amino acids
the bond between amino acids in a protein; formed by dehydration synthesis
peptide bond
the specific sequence of amino acids that make up every protein
primary structure
carbon compounds that do not dissolve in water
consist of 3 long hydrocarbon chains
these fats have no double bonds;make up most animal fats;are solid at room temperature
saturated fats
fats that contain one or more double bonds;make up most plant fats;liquid at room temperature
unsaturated fats
primary structure in hormones that play important signaling roles in the body
the monomer of nucleic acid
What do nucleotides consist of?
a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base
What are the bases of DNA?
adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
What are the bases of RNA?
adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine
What is the structure of DNA?
a double helix (looks like a twisted ladder)
Name the pairs of nitrogenous bases.
cytosine with guanine (DNA and RNA)
adenine with thymine (DNA only)
adenine with uracil (RNA only)
What is the structure of RNA?
single helix
What is the function of DNA?
it stores genetic material and passes it from generation to generation
What is the function of RNA?
carries messages from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
What is the main function of proteins?
Structure, signaling, catalysis
a protein polymer
polypeptide, protein
What is the function of lipids?
energy storage, signaling, membrane constituents
What is the function of nucleic acids?
storing genetic material
nucleic acid monomer
nucleic acid polymer
What is the function of carbohydrates?
energy source, energy storage, structural
What is the starting material that will undergo chemical change in a chemical rxn facilitated by an enzyme?
What is the one-to-one correspondence between enzyme and substrate?
What is the part of an enzyme that interacts with, or binds to, a substrate?
active site
What are molecules that prevent enzymes from functioning properly?
What is a compound that regulates activity by binding to an enzyme to tell it when to catalyze a rxn?

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