Glossary of Organelles for Biology Honors

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cell membrane(plasma membrane)
at the boundary of every cell the cell membrane acts as a slective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and water to service the entire cell volume.
Function of the cell membrane
*protects the inside of the cell
*supports and gives the cell shape
*controls what moves into and out of a cell
*recognizes and responds to chemical signals (cell communication)
the region between the nucleus and the cell membrane, where the organelles of the cell are located
semi-fluid substance in cells
specilized internal structures in Eukaryotic cells
th "brain" of the cell
*contains all of the blueprints for all of the cells in the body
*DNA is found in the nucleus, usually in the form of cromatin
nuclear membrane
a double membrane that allows things to enter and leave the nucleus through pores
makes ribosomes (may be multiple nucleoli in a cell)
the organelle where proteins are made. Ribosomes leave the nucleus via the nuclear membrane with instructions on how to make proteins
Endoplasmic Recticulum
the site of cellular chemical reactions. serve as a system of channels for materials to be transported throughout the cell. (highway system for the cell)
Rough ER/Smooth ER
Rough ER: ribosomes attach and finnish forming proteins

Smooth ER: production and storage of lipids and other molecules take place here
Golgi Body (Apparatus)
proteins are modified *fine toned)
*the proteins are packaged and shipped off to where they are needed inside and outside of the cell
***the post office of the cell
the digestive system of the cell
*enzymes are found here!
*there is a membrane surrounding the lysosome
just found in animal cells; play a role in cell division(mitosis)
membrane bound spaces that are temperary storage of materials
organelles that capture light energy and produce food to use for a later time (glucose)
*have a double membrane
a green pigment that traps light energy
membrane bound organellesin plant and animal cells that transform energy for the cell (power house of the cell)
*depending on the function of the cell the # of mitochondria may increase or decrease
cell wall
rigid structure located outside the cell membrane. found only in plant cells and some bacteria cells.
function: support and protection

made up of cellilose(fibrous and porous)
***the cell wall is NOT selectively will let anything that fits in!!!
support structure within the cytoplasm, made up of tiny rods and filaments
microtubes: thin hollow protein cylindars
microfilametns: thin, solid protein fibers
****microfilaments help support and made the cell
structures that help cells with locomotion and feeding
*short hair-like projections that move in a wave like motion
same functions as cilia
*long projection that move in a whip-like motion

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