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Glossary of Oral Diagnosis Terminology

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a decrease in the number of granulocytes in peripheral blood resulting from bone marrow depression by drugs and chemicals or replacement by a neoplasm. Oral lesions are ulceronecrotic, involving the gingiva, tongue, buccal mucosa, or lips. Regional lypha
Agranulocytosis
a hypersensitivity reacdtion of the body to an allergen; an antigen-antibody reaction is manifested in several forms - anaphylaxis, asthma, hay fever, etc.
Allergic reaction
the examination procedure of listening for sounds produced by the body to detect or judge an abnormal condition.
auscultation
a violent allergic reaction characterized by sudden collapse, shock, or respiratory and circulatory failure after injectdion of an allergen
anaphylaxis
a term indicating that the concentration of hemoglobin or the number of red blood cells is below the accepted normal value with respect to age and sex. In true ____, the total concentration of hemoglobin, or the total number of erythrocytes, is below nor
Anemia
a spasmodic, choking pain. The term is sometimes applied to the disease producing the pain (for example, Ludwig’s angina).
Angina
the spontaneous swelling of the lips, cheeks, eyelids, tongue, soft palate, pharynx, and glottis, frequently associated with allergy to foods or drugs and lasting from several hours to several days. Involvement of the glottis results in obstruction of th
Angioedema (angioneurotic edema)
a drug that delays or prevents coagulation of blood
anticoagulant
agents that lower or reduce high blood pressure
antihypertensives
periodic episodes of aphthous lesions lasting from 1 week to several months. Trauma, menses, immunologic factors, upper respiratory tract infections, and herpes simplex are suggested causes. The single or multiple discrete or confluent ulcers have a well
Apthous ulcer
pathologic conditions or disorders such as leukemia or hemophilia in which any of the constituents of the blood are abnormal or are present in abnormal quantity.
Blood Dyscrasia
the involuntary gnashing, grinding, or clenching of teeth. Bruxism is usually an unconscious activity, whether the individual is awake or asleep; often associated with fatigue, anxiety, emotional stress, or fear, and frequently triggered by occlusal irre
Bruxism
an infection by Candida albicans
Candidiasis
infection by a fungus of the genus Candida, usually C. albicans. May involve the mouth (thrush), female genitalia, skin, hands, nails, and/or lungs. Oral _____ refers to thrush or to mycotic stomatitis. The latter term is sometimes applied to erythematou
moniliasis
a disease caused by Candida albicans and characterized by white patches that scrape off with some difficult, leaving bleeding bases. This term usually is used for the intraoral disease, whereas moniliasis is applied to the condition in other areas of inf
Thrush
the decay or death of a bone
Caries
an infectious disease with progressive destruction of tooth substance, beginning on the exsternal surface by demineralization of enamel or exposed cementum
Dental Caries
the symptom or reason for which the patient seeks treatment. the most troublesome ailment, problem, or symptom.
chief complaint (C.C.)
chronic degenerative disease of the liver in which blood flrow is restricted and metabolic and dtexification functions are 9impiared or destroyed. _______ is most commonly the result of chronic alcohol abuse.
cirrhosis
any symptom or circumstance indicating the inappropriateness of a from of treatment otherwise advisable.
contraindication
gradual recovery of health and strength after disease; the time between the subsidence of a disease and complete restoration to health.
convalescence
desructgion and usually removal of the pulp from a tooth.
devitalization
a metabolic disorder caused primarily by a defect in the production of insulin by the islet cells of the pancreas resulting in an inability to use carbohydrates. Characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polyuria, hyperlipemia (caused by imperfect cata
diabetes mellitus
diabetes that includes patients requiring the administration of insulin to prevent ketosis. previously called juvenile onsent diabetes
insulin dependent (IDDM) type 1
diabetes that includes patients who can maintain proper blood sugar levels within the administration of insulin. previously called maturity onset diabetes
non-insulin dependent (NIDDM) type 2
a metabolic disturbance characterized by marked urinary excretion and great thrist but no elevation of sugar output of antidiuretic hormone, leading to polyuria dn polydispia
diabetes insipidus
the translation of data gathered by clinical and radiographic examination into an organzied, classified definintion of the conditions present.
diagnosis
type of filtration used to separate smaller molecules from larger ones contained in a solution. the molecular solution is placed on one side of a semipermeable membrane and water on the other side. the smaller molecules pass through the membrane into the
dialysis
faulty nutrition. often used to refer to the results of faulty nutrition, that is, wasting away
dystrophy
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay used to detect the presence of HIV antibody to HIV in the blood.
ELISA
the chemical or mechanicochemical destruction of tooth substance, the mechanism of which is incompletely known, which leads to the createion of concavities of many shapes at the cementoenamel junction of teeth. the surface of the cavity, unlike dental ca
erosion
a group of neurologic disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures, sensory disturbances, abnormal beharior, and loss of consciousness. most ______ is of an unknown cause, but may be associated with cerebral trauma, brain tumors,
epilepsy
causative factors; the factdors implicated in the causation of disease; the study of the factors causing disease
etiology
the environmental influences that may be implicated int eh causation or perpetuation of a disease process.
local factors
generalized biologic factors that are implicated in the causation, modification, or perpetuation of a disease entity. within the oral cavity, the actions of the _______ are modified by interaction with local factors
systemic factors
originating or caused by aspects external to a body
exogenous
an abnormal tract connecting two body surfaces or organs leading from a pathologic or natural internal cavity to the surface. the tract may be lined with epithelium.
fistula
a sex linked genetic disease manifested in males and characterized by severe hemorrhage.
hemophilia
the expectoration of blood, by coughing, from the larynx or lwer respiratory tract
hemoptysis
the escape of a large amount of blood from the blood vessels in a short period; excessive bleeding
hemorrhage
anticoagulant which acts in combiniation with antithrombin III to inhibit thrombosis; inactivates factor Xa and inhibits conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
heparin
inflammation of the liver
hepatitis
an increased and excessive amount of blood in a tissue. the ______ may be active to passive
hyperemia
hyperemia caused by an increased flow of blood to an area by active dilation of both the arterioles and the capillaries. it is associated with neruogenic, hormonal, and metabolic function
Active hyperemia
hyperemia caused by a decreased outflow of blood from an area. it may be generalized, resulting from cardiac, renal, or pulmonary disorders, or it may be localized, as in the roal cavity, and caused by pressure from mechanical or physical obstruction or
Passive hyperemia
the abnormal multiplication or increase in the number of normal cdells in normal arrangement in a tissue or organ, resulting in a thickening or enlargement of the tissue or organ; an enlargement of tissue beneath a denture that is traumatizing the soft t
hyperplasia
abnormalities of calorigenic mechanisms, body tissues, blood, and body fluids and of the circulatory, muscular, and nervous systems resulting from an excessive elaboration of thyroid hormone.
hyperthyroidism
diminished activity of the thyroid gland with decreased secretion of thyroxin, resulting in lowered basal metabolic rate, lethargy, sleepiness, dysmenorrheal in females, and a tendency toward obesity. Occasionally there is accompanying gingival hyperplas
hypothyroidism
the maintenance of an ideal environment with regard to tomeperature, light, air, and humidity in order to foster development of an organixm or culture.
incubation
bacterial infection of the heart valves. it may occur in normal or compromised valves. an increasing occurrence of the disease has been documented in those with prosthetic valved replacements, known as prosthetic valve endocarditis
infective endocarditis
the cellular and vascular response or reactdion to injury. ______ is characterized by pain, redness, swelling, heat, disturbance or function. does not equal infection, which implies an initiation by invasion of living organisms.
inflammation
a hormone produced by the beta cells of the islets of langerhans in the pancrease. it promotes a dercrease in blood sugar. its action may be influenced by the pituitary growth hormone, ACTH and others.
insulin
condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of bilirubin in the blood and manifeste by a yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and cornea. seen in hemolytic anemias, biliary obstruction, hepatitis, etc. oral mucous membranes may
jaundice
a condition affecting blood vessels; believed to be of a neoplastic nature and of multicentric origin. Skin lesions appear as multiple red-brown nodules ranging from a few mm to 1 cm in size.
Kaposi's Sarcoma
any disease process that involves a lymph node or nodes.
lymphadenopathy
involvement of all or several regionally separated groups of lymph nodes by a systemic disorder
generalized lymphadnopathy
swerlling of the lymph nodes that is associated with HIV infection and AIDS
persistent generalized lymphadenopathy
involvedment of nodes draining a specific region
regional lymphadenopathy
general feeling of discomfort and uneasiness, often the first indication of an infection or other disease
malaise
a lesion that is not elevated above the surface
Macule
(relationship of teeth in occlusion), a deviation in intramaxillary and/or intermaxillary relations of teeth that presents a hazard to the individual’s well-being. Often associated with other dentofacial deformities.
Malocclusion
– a type of malocclusion occurring in persons who cannot close all their teeth while holding their condyles in the rearmost position. Instead, in closure they first contact one or two pairs of poorly coupled teeth. To gain occlusal contacts of the othe
deflective malocclusion
change of position, state, or form; the spread of a disease-producing agency (as cancer cells or bacteria) from the initial or primary site of disease to another part of the body; the process by which such spreading occurs. A secondary malignant tumor re
metastasis
an oclcusion or blockage of arteries supplying the muscles of the heart, resulting in injury or necrosis of the heart muscle (heart attact)
myocardial infarction
acute or chronic inflammation of the kidney affecting the structure and caused by infection, a degeneratvie process, or vascular disease.
nephritis
related to a hospital; a condition described as _____ is one that occurs as a direct result of hospital treatment
nosocomial
bone necrosis secondary to irradiation and superimposed infection
osteoradioncerosis
mucus, multiple gray/white patch overlying an area of ulceration and occurring on the oral mucosa as an expression of secondary syphilis; highly infectious
patch
a small, circumscribed, solid elevated lesion
Papule
secondary lesion of syphilis seen at the angle of the lips, resulting from the formation of a papule that becomes fissured because of its position
split papule
rfelating to, marked by, or causing petechiae or petechiation
petechial
capillary hemorrhages producing small red or puplish pinhead sized discolorations of the mucous membrane and skin. ____ are typical of blood dyscrasias, vit C deficiency, etc.
petechial
abnormally increased thirst
polydipsia
disproportionate appetite or eating
polyphagia
the passage of an ab normally increased volume of urine. it may result from increased intake of fluids, inadequate renal function, uncontrolled diabetes, et.
polyuria
an element that causes or contributes to the occurence of a disorder or problem
precipitating factors
increased vulnerability to a particular disease based on genetic factors or the existence of certain underlying conditions not yet active or revealed.
predisposed
precancerous
premalignant
the prevention of disease
prophylaxis
a series or precedures whereby calculus, stain, and other accretions are removed from the clinical crowns of the teeth, and the clinical crowns of the teeth are polished
dental prophylaxis
a glycoprotein precursor or thrombin that is produced in the liver and is necessary for the coagulation of blood.
prothrombin
originating in the mind or in mental or emotional conflict
psychogenic
a severe, apparently infectious disease produced by hemolytic streptococci organisms or associated with their presence in the body; characterized by upper respiratory tract inflammation, cervical lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitits, polyarthritis, cardiac
Rheumatic Fever
a sudden attack; the physical manifestations (as convulsions, sensory distrubances, or loss of consciousness) resulting from abnormal electrical discharges in the brain (as in epilepsy)
Seizure
an indication of the existence of something; any objective evidence of a disease.
sign
a cavity, recess, or hollow space
sinus
inflammation of the soft tissues of the mouth occurring as a result of mechanical, chemical, thermal, viral, electrical, or radiation injury or reactions to allergens or as secondary manifestations of systemic disease
stomatitis
any morbid phenomenon or departure from the normal in function, appearance, or sensation, experienced by teh patient and indicative of disease.
symptom
swooning of fatining; temporary suspension of consciousness caused by cerebral anemia
syncope
1. the joint formed by the two condyles of the mandible 2. the bilateral articulation between the glenoid or mandibular fossae of the temporal bones and condyles, of the mandible.
TMJ
a loss of covering epthelium from the skin or mucous membranes, causing gradual disintegration and necrosis of the tissues
Ulcer
a vascular reaction pattern of the skin marked by the transient appearance fo smooth, slighly elevated patches that are more red or more pale than the surrounding skin and are accompanied by severe itching. also called hives
urticaria
an agent that causes a rise in blood pressure by constricting the blood vessels. in local areas, it causes constricton of the arterioles and capillaries.
vasoconstrictor
edematous elevation fo the skin or mucosa
wheal
dryness of the mouth resulting from functional or organic disturbances of the salivary glands and lack of the normal secretion, primarily caused by prescribed medications. dryness, loss of basic environment, and resultant overgrowth of oral microorganism
xerostomia

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