Glossary of Oceans-Glaciers and Environmental Changes

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What is a landslide?
rapid downhill movements, primarily of soila nd weathered debris
continental rise
a wedge of sediment that extends from the lower part of the continental slope to deep sea floor
submarine canyons
v shaped valleys that run across continental shlves and down continental slopes
turbidity currents
dense mixtures of water and sediment
These are characteristics of what landscape?: peneplane, poor drainage system with no gradient, many meanders, and wide floodplains
old landscape
What are shallow depressions produced by deflation?
volcanic mountains rising 1000 m above the ocean floor
What is creep?
a slow type of mass movement
abyssal plains
flat regions of deep ocean floor, found at the baswe of the continental rise
How are soil associations grouped?
composition, particle shape and size, organic content, porosity, permeability, and the maturity of the soil
What is a recessional moraine?
build up when the glacier recedes for awhile and then becomes stationary
The density of water increases or decreases as the water gets colder?
What is a valley glacier?
a glacier confined to avalley and flows from higher to lower elevations
what evidence exists to show that there were several periods of glaciation in New York State?
outwash plains on Long Island
What are the magor landscape groups/
mountains, plateaus, and plains
What are some uplifting forces?
earthquakes, diastrophism, volcanic activity, continental drift, sea floor spreading
What are mudflows?
downhill movements of fine-grained surface marerial that has been saturated with water
What happens when a glacier slides over rock?
the rock is abraded
what are slumps?
downward slipping of rock material, with a backward rotation
What are three large water masses formed as density currents at polar regions?
The Anarctic Bottom Current, North Atlantic Deep Water Current,, and The Antarctic Intermediate Water Current
What was the ice sheet that advaded over New York, started in Laurentide mountains of Quebec, and covering almost all of the state?
Laurentide Ice Sheet
What is a drumlin?
shaped like an inverted bowl of a spoon with the long axis parallel to the direction of ice movement
continental slope
next to the continental shelg, is a relatively steep, extending downward as deep as 2 kilometers from the shelf
How is a glacier formed?
A glacier is formed due to compactiona and recrystallization of snow where more snow accumulates than melts away over a period of time
What is the zone of accumulation?
the upper part of a glacier wher more snow falls than melts
Why are large bodies of water never still?
tides are constantly churning up the water
What is a moraine?
a mass or glacial till left behind afeter a glacier has melted
How does water circulate in the Mediterranean Sea?
Water in the warm sea evaporates and becomes very saline and dense. The dense water sinks and flows out the bottom. It is replaced by less dense water from the Atlantic Ocean
what is a cirque?
a bowl shaped erosional scar on the side of a mountain fromed by frost action
continental shelf
a gently sloping surface which extends under the ocean from the shoreline to a depth of about 100-200 meters
What is meltwater?
water from melting snow
What is an erratic?
a large rock deposired by a glacier that id different from the type of rock beneath it
Which parts of New York were most probably never covered by glaciers?
Alleghany region and Southern Long Island
What is till?
unsorted rock material deposited directly by a glacier
During the Pleistocene Epoch, What covered most of New York?
glaciers 1-2 kilometers deep
What are crests?
tops of the waves
What are sediments carried by glaciers or the meltwater of glaciers?
What effects the height, length, and period of a wave?
wind speed, the length of time the wind has blown, and the fetch or distance that the wind has travelled across the open water
What is a mature landscape?
low, rounded hills, and broad flat valleys, sidecutting, bilding meanders and floodplains
What characterizes a young landscape?
narrow v-shaped valleys, steep-fast moving rivers, sharp hills and mountains
What is a kettle?
When an ice block forms and then melts, it leaves a steep sided hole
What is outwash?
rock material deposited by the meltwater of a glacier
How do winds transport sand and other materials?
suspension and bouncing
What is a lateral moraine?
piles of till along the sides of a glacier
What does a terminal moraine indicate?
the farthest advance of a glacier
what is a glacier?
a large, long lasting mass of ice which forms on the land and moves downslope because of gravity

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