Glossary of Oceanography Chapter 6

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A positively charged particle at the center of an atom
The dark ocean below the depth to which light can penetrate.
aphotic zone
A high-resolution sound-imaging system used for geological investigations, archeological studies, and the location of sunken ships and airplanes
side-scan sonar
A substance composed of identical atoms that cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical means.
Sound fixing and ranging. An experimental U.S. Navy technique for locating survivors on life rafts, based on the fact that sound from explosive charges dropped into the layer of minimum sound velocity can be heard for great distances
A substance composed of two or more elements in a fixed proportion
A form of energy transmitted by rapid pressure changes in an elastic medium
An energy relationship that holds two atoms together as a result of changes in their electron distribution.
chemical bond
The zone of the ocean in which temperature decreases rapidly with depth. See also pycnocline
A chemical bond formed between two atoms by electron sharing
covalent bond
A device that detects the intensity and direction of underwater sounds
passive sonar
An arbitrary measure of temperature. One degree Celsius (°̊C) = 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit (°̊F)
The middle zone of the ocean in which density increases rapidly with depth. Temperature falls and salinity rises in this zone
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram (0.035 ounce) of pure water by 1°̊C (1.8°̊F).
See surface zone
Mixed Layer
Conversion of sound or light energy into heat.
The dispersion (or "bounce") of sound or light waves when they strike particles suspended in water or air. The amount of scatter depends on the number, size, and composition of the particles
A device that generates underwater sound from special transducers and analyzes the returning echoes to gain information of geological, biological, or military importance.
active sonar
Heat whose gain or loss is detectable by a thermometer or other sensor.
sensible heat
Attachment of water molecules to other substances by hydrogen bonds. Wetting.
Bending of light or sound waves as they move at an angle other than 90°̊ between media of different optical or acoustical densities. See also wave refraction
A tiny negatively charged particle in an atom responsible for chemical bonding
Heat removed from a liquid during freezing (or added to a solid during thawing) that produces a change in state but not a change in temperature. For pure water, 80 calories per gram at 0°̊C (32°̊F)
Latent Heat of Fusion
The zone of the ocean below the pycnocline, in which there is little additional change of density with increasing depth. Contains about 80% of the world's water.
deep zone
A molecule with unbalanced charge. One end of the molecule has a slight negative charge, and the other end has a slight positive charge
polar molecule
Attachment of water molecules to each other by hydrogen bonds
The thin film of lighted water at the top of the world ocean. The photic zone rarely extends deeper than 200 meters (660 feet). Compare euphotic zone
photic zone
The smallest particle of an element that exhibits the characteristics of that element
Heat added to a liquid during evaporation (or released from a gas during condensation) that produces a change in state but not a change in temperature. For pure water, 585 calories per gram at 20°̊C (68°̊F)
Latent Heat of Evaporation
A graph showing the relationship between a fluid's temperature or salinity and its density
Density Curve
Layer of minimum sound velocity in which sound transmission is unusually efficient. Sounds leaving this depth tend to be refracted back into it. The sofar layer usually occurs at mid-latitude depths around 1,200 meters (4,000 feet)
sofar channel (layer)
The zone of the ocean in which salinity increases rapidly with depth. See also pycnocline
A property of water that acts to moderate changes in temperature.
thermostatic property
The temperature at which a solid can begin to form as a liquid is cooled.
Freezing Point
A body of water identifiable by its salinity and temperature (and therefore its density) by its gas content or another indicator.
water mass
An statement of the internal form of matter. Water exists in three states: solid, liquid, and gas. A solid has a fixed volume and fixed shape; a liquid has a fixed volume but no fixed shape; and a gas has neither fixed volume nor fixed shape
Tendency of a substance to resist change in temperature with the gain or loss of heat energy.
thermal inertia
The upper layer of ocean in which temperature and salinity are relatively constant with depth. Depending on local conditions, the surface zone may reach to 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) or be absent entirely. Also called the mixed layer
surface zone
Electromagnetic radiation propagated as small, nearly massless particles that behave like both a wave and a stream of particles
A form of energy produced by the random vibration of atoms or molecules.
The degree of refraction from one medium to another expressed as a ratio. The higher the ratio (refractive index), the greater the bending of waves between media.
refractive index
The response of a solid, liquid, or gas to the input or removal of heat energy. A measure of the atomic and molecular vibration in a substance, indicated in degrees
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1°̊C (1.8°̊F)
Heat Capacity
Relatively weak bond formed between a partially positive hydrogen atom and a partially negative oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen atom of an adjacent molecule.
Hydrogen Bond

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