Glossary of OT Human Development

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What is the first sensory system to develop and also the first system in which a fetus responds first to in the prenatal period?
Touch and Tactile system
When are primative reflexes present? integrate?
present: at or just after birth
integrate: throughout the 1st year
Stroking the corner of the mouth, upper lip and lower lip stimulates what reflex?
Rooting Reflex (begins @ 28 weeks gestation; integrates @ 3 months)
The Suck-swallow reflex occurs after the OT does what?
Places a finger inside the infants mouth with the head in midline
The stimulus is: grasping the infant's forearms and pull-to-sit; the response is: complete flexion of upper extremities; what is the reflex?
Traction reflex (begins at 28 wks. ges.; integrates @ 2-5 mos.)
What kind of response would a baby have with Moro reflex?
(begins at 28 wks., integrates 4-6 mos.)
First phase: arm extension, abduction, hand opening; Second phase: arm flexion and adduction
The stimulus is: fully rotate baby's head and hold the baby's head for 5 seconds; the response is: extension of extremities on the face side, flesion of extremities on the skull side; the reflex being tested is?
Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflex
What is the relevance of ATNR?
to promote visual hand regard
What reflex is being tested when a baby is held in horizontal prone position and the typical response is complete extension of the head, trunk and extremities?
Landau Reaction
If you want to break up total extensor posture and facilitat static quadruped position, what reflex would you test for?
Symmetric tonic neck--place infant in crawling position and extend the head for the typical response of flexion of the hip and knees
What are reemergening or constant primitive reflexes a sign of?
CNS--central nervous system dysfunction
In what anatomical direction does motor development occur
From 0-1 month the infant has no release and the grasp reflex is strong. When does VOLITIONAL release occur--at what age
7-9 mos.
What is the highest level of prewriting skills--how a pencil should be held?
What is the lowest level--how a 1 yr. old holds a crayon?
Dynamic Tripod Grasp;
Palmar Supinate Grasp
Who was a major theorist in psychosocial development that developed 8 stages of man dealing with personal-social crisis?
Ex: trust v. mistrust
Erik Erikson
Who developed the stages of moral development: prevocational morality: up to age 8
conventional morality: 9-10 yrs. of age
postconventional morality: varying age range...not all reach this stage
Lawrence Kohlberg
Who developed a hierarchy of basic needs, stating that if lower needs are met, the person can't work on higher level pursuitsq
Abraham Maslow
Jean Piaget's hierachial development of cognition--at what age does each period occur:
Concrete Operational?
Formal Operations?
Sensorimotor: birth-2
Preoperational: 2-7yrs.
Concreate Operational: 7-11yr
Formal Operations: 11-teen yr
What are the 4 categories of the development of PLAY?
Exploratory (0-2)
Symbolic (2-4)
Creative (4-7)
Games (7-12)
When are jaw and tongue movements strong enough for feeding?
35 weeks +
What FOR is related to the development of adaptive skills (SI, cognition, dyadic interaction, group interaction, self-identity, sexual identity)for successful participation in occupational performance?
Recapulation of Ontogenesis
A child who shows signs of withdrawal, has nightmares, runs away, experience anxiety/depression and guilt, does not trust adults, is fearful and aggressive are all characteristics of what?
Child abuse
The weakening of the body at a gradual but steady pace during the last stages of adulthood through death is known as what?
Descrimination and prejudice toward people based on their age is known as what?
What is progeria?
Premature aging
Progeria of childhood is known as what syndrome?
Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome
Progeria of young adults is known as what syndrome?
Werner's Syndrome
At what age does muscle strenght decline?
peaks at age 30, remains constant until age 50 then 20-40% loss by age 65
What visual condition cause an inablitiy to FOCUS and BLURRED VISION occurs due to loss of accomodation, elasticity of the lens?
A pt. has cloudening of the lends, increased problems with glare, darkened vision and loss of acuity, distortion. What is likely the diagnosis?
Cataracts cause the loss of ____ vision 1st, then _____ vision
Central then peripheral
A client is having difficulty seeing out of his peripheral vision creating "tunnel vision"--what's his diagnosis?
A degeneration of the optic disc and atrophy of the optic nerve result in what?
A client has lost central vision but can see some peripherally--what his condition?
Macular Degeneration
What visual disorder is related to impaired central vision, blurriness, and rare complete blindness?
Diabetic retinopathy
What type of vision loss would CVA, homonymous hemianopsia cause?
loss of 1/2 visual field in each eye--can't receive information from R or L side; side affected depends on the side of the sensorimotor deficit
What would be a good compensatory strategy for a person with diplopia?
wear an eye patch
A person with mechanical hearing loss from damage to the external auditory canal, tympanic membrane or middle ear would have what specific type of hearing loss?
Central of Neural hearing loss would result in what type of hearing loss?
What type of sensorineural hearing loss is coorelated with middle and older age?
A person diagnosed with Otosclerosis results in profound _______ hearing loss due to the immobility of the stapes.1
Proprioceptive losses with aging are greater in ______ extremities than _______ extremities and greater in _______ extremities than in proximal
lower extremities than upper extremities; distal extremities than proximal extremities
At what age does a child develop a fine pincer grasp?
12 months
At what age does a child develop an inferior pincer grasp?
9 months
At what age does a palmar grasp occur to pick up a cube?
5 months
Developmental levels of hand manipulation
1. finger to palm translation
2. palm to finger
3. shift
4. simple rotation
5. complex rotation
6. in hand manipulation

cog development (3-6 mo)
focus of actions on objects (banging, shaking)
early awareness of cause and effect
cog skill development (18-24 mo)
*attends to shapes and uses appropriately
*thinks before acting
*tool use for favorite object
*replaces trial/error with problem solving
*operate mechanical toy
*matches objects ie. shape sorter
*increased pretend play
*inanimate object performing activities

cog skill development (6-9 mo)
*explores characteristics of objects (poking, pulling, tearing)
*finds objects after they disappear
*uses movement to secure toy
*repeated actions for consequence (bang object to hear noise)
*anticipates movement of objects in space (looks for objects overhead

Cog skill development (9-12 mo)

*able to use tool post demonstration
*goal directed behavior to produce a response
*object permanence emerges

cog skill development (24-30 mo)
*build horizontal/ vertical with blocks
*discriminates sizes
*recognizes relationships between experiences
*focus of play is language development
*parallel play
*links combination of schemes (feeding doll baby)

cog skill develop (12-18 mo)
*asks for help
*activates simple machine
*inspects objects
*uses trial/error for new problems
*tool use
*basic make believe

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